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tihvary of t:he theological ^tminary 


The Library of 
Professor Archibald A. Hodge 

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

Princeton Tlieological Seminary Library 






Dr. Leonard Hutter, 



Eev. H. E. Jacobs, 

Eev. G. F. Spieker. 



807 Vine Street. 

18 6 8. 

Entered; according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, 

By Rev. H. E. JACOBS, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of 



The little work which is hereby introduced to the 
English-speaking portion of our church, is a classic 
in Lutheran Theology. Its author, Dr. Leonard Hut- 
ter. Professor at Wittenberg from 1596 until his death 
in 1616, was the most prominent theologian of his 
age. As a teacher, the church owes to him a debt of 
lasting gratitude for the direction which his instruc- 
tions gave to the mind of Dr. John Gerhard, the most 
eminent of Lutheran theologians. As a devotional 
writer, he published an " Epitome of the Bible," and 
"Meditations on the Cross of Christ." But it was as 
an ardent supporter, and zealous champion of our 
faith, that he was especially distinguished. As such, 
in his Concordia Concors, he defended the Eorm of 
Concord against the Concordia Discors of Hospinian ; 
in his Calvinista Aulico-politiciis, contended for Chris- 
tian libertj^, in opposition to the edict of the Elector 
John Sigismund, which prohibited the teaching of 
certain Lutheran doctrines within the Electorate of 
Brandenburg ; and in quite a number of books, dis- 
sertations, and tracts, attacked and refuted Roman- 
ism. His resemblance to Luther in vigor of mind, 
energy of action, unwearied industry, firmness in 
faith, and boldness in proclaiming truth and sharply 

(iii ) 


rebuking error, gave to him the title of Lutherus redi- 

This Compend must not be confounded either with 
the more extended Loci Theologici, which he after- 
wards issued, or with the rationalistic Hutterus redi- 
vivus of Hase. It was originally prepared as a text- 
book for the theological schools of Saxony. The 
Loci Communes of Melanchthon had been almost 
universally used. But the controversies which pre- 
vious to the adoption of the Form of Concord had 
agitated our Lutheran church, rendered such a work 
necessary as would dwell more fully upon those doc- 
trines of Christian faith, concerning which some of 
our teachers had erred. In addition to this defect of 
the Loci^ another objection was urged against it. 
Whilst the earlier editions so admirably presented the 
pure doctrine as to gain Luther's commendation, that 
"the little book could not be refuted, and it was 
worthy not only of immortality, but even of canon- 
ical authority," the later issues contained many alter- 
ations and additions in conflict with the faith of the 
church. In a letter to Carlowitz in 1548, Melanchthon 
acknowledges that he had abandoned the position of 
Luther in reference to many articles of Christian doc- 
trine, and that especially in the article concerning the 
Free Will, his present views accorded more nearly 
with those of Erasmus.* These changes in his doc- 
trinal position he introduced into his Loci, thereby 
greatly marring its excellency as a text-book for the 
instruction of the future teachers of the church. 
Moved by these considerations, the Elector Christian 

* See Buddei Isagoge, p. 346. 


II, of Saxony, commissioned Dr. Hutter to prepare a 
Compeud of Theology, charging him to use, to as 
great an extent as possible, the language of the Book 
of Concord, so that not only the substance, but also 
the very form of sound words might be taught in the 
schools. After completion, the work was revised, and 
approved by the theological faculties of Leipsic and 
Wittenberg, and was then published in 1609. It was 
received with great favor throughout the entire church, 
and for nearly a century was almost universally used 
in the schools of our church in Germany. A German 
translation appeared in the year succeeding its publi- 
cation ; and in the following year. Dr. Hutter himself 
prepared another translation. We have not before us 
a list of all the editions which have been published ; 
but from such authorities as we have at hand, we have 
gathered information concerning twenty-five, the latest 
of which is that of Twesten, Berlin, 1855. A number 
of our theologians have made this Compend a basis 
for other works. Glassius, the greatest of Lutheran 
philologists of his era, wrote a commentary upon it ; 
so also did Christian Chemnitz, Be chmann, and others. 
Werner followed this work, when he prepared his 
"System of Polemic Theology." Seyfart prepared 
"A Logical Anatomy of Hutter's Compend;" and 
Heunischius, "An Analytical Epitome" of the same. 
Moebius wrote quite an extensive volume in defence 
of it ; and Meisner prepared an edition with the Latin 
and German text in parallel columns. Hulsemann 
esteemed the study of this Compend as of no less im- 
portance than that of the Symbolical Books them- 
selves ; and to a reading of it from mere curiosity, 
Freymiiller ascribed his conversion from Romanism. 



This translation has been prepared in order to pre- 
sent to our church in this country an exhibition of 
pure Lutheran Theology. No work of like character 
has appeared in the English language, except Got- 
theil's translation of Hunnius^ Epitome Credendorwni^ 
published some twenty years ago in Germany, but 
now out of print. The Reformed Church, appreciat- 
ing her early teachers, has produced translations of 
Calvin's Institutes, and the systems of Pictet and 
Venema; but the Lutheran Church, with doctrinal 
works of far greater value, possesses them only in a 
language, which in this country, is read by compara- 
tively few of her ministers, and scarcely any of her 

Hutter's Compend has been selected from among 
the treasures of our Lutheran dogmatic, because in 
many respects better adapted to the present state of 
our church in this country, than any other work. Al- 
though it is not a full system of Theology, it cannot 
fail to give all earnest searchers after truth, a more 
thorough acquaintance with the faith of our church, 
and a clearer conception of the System of Theology 
contained in our Symbolical Books. More can be 
learned from it than from a mere cursory reading of 
the Confessions themselves, inasmuch as the subjects 
are here treated of in a more connected and symmet- 
rical form than in the Symbols, which were prepared 
at different emergencies, for different purposes, and 
each of which is in itself distinct and complete. 

The translation has been made from the Leipsic 
edition of 1141, edited by Janus. The German trans- 
lation of Francke, Halle, 1837, has also been freely 
iised, and has supplied some additional notes from the 


Symlbols, which will be found printed in finer type. 
The credit for the latter part of the translation, begin- 
ning with Article xiv, belongs to Rev. G. F. Spieker; 
the responsibility for the remainder belongs to us. 
Praying that the blessing of God may rest upon 
this little volume, so that it may aid in diffusing the 
light of truth, and dissipating the shades of error, 
we hereby present it to the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of America. 

H. E. J. 


August 17th, 1868. 





Their source — Their design — Canonical books — Apocryphal — 
Perspicuity — Sufficiency — The only judge in church controver- 
sies — Writings of the fathers and other theologians — Symbols 
of the church — Their authority — their use, . . . 13 — 18 



Faith of the church on this article — Attributes of God — His 
unity — His triunity — His personality — The Father — The Son — 
The Holy Ghost 18—24 



His names — His natures — Union of these natures in one person — 
Effects of this union — Communion of the natures — Communi- 
catio idiomatum — The offices of Christ — Christ as a priest — 
Christ as a king, 24 — 44 



Meaning of the word, create — Material of which the world was 
made — Design of creation — Its order, .... 45 — 47 

( i^ ) 





Their origin — Their original condition — The Good Angels: Their 
perfection — Orders — Offices — Worship — The Bad Angels : 
Their fall — Guilt — Works and desires — Knowledge — Power — 
Hopes of Redemption, 47 — 53 



In what it consisted — Its loss — Its restoration, . . . 54 — 55 


Its existapce — Grades — Concurrence in human actions, . 56 — 60 


Its cause. Original sin : Its existence — Universality — Punish- 
ment — Errors concerning original sin — The Pelagians — Pa- 
pists — Manicheans — Flaecians — Actual sin — Mortal — Venial — 
The sin against conscience — Against the Son of Man — Against 
the Holy Ghost. No sinless perfection attained in this life, 60 — 72 



The state of the will before the fall — The state since the fall — j. 
The will free in natural and civil matters — Not free in spiritual 
matters — Powerless in conversion — State of the unenlightened 
understanding — Of the unrenewed heart — Ability to resist the 
work of the Spirit 72—82 



The Ceremonial law — The Forensic — The Moral — Origin of the 
law — Its demands — Its uses — Political — Pedagogical — Didao- 



tic — Its necessity — Its effects— Its observance — Its fulfilment 
by Christ, 82—91 



How it differs from the Law — In mode of revelation — Subject- 
matter — Form of Promise — Object — Effects. Error of the An- 
tinomians examined, 91 — 98 



Justification comprises two acts, one privative, the other posi- 
tive — The causes of Justification — The grace of God — Merit of 
Christ — Faith. Good works not a cause, . . . 98 — 109 



Difference between it and prescience — Its cause — Grades — Ob- 
ject — Particularity — Means — Limits 110 — 123 



Their existence — How they are performed — Their effects — Their 
necessity — Their want of merit — Their use, . . . 123 — 132 



Subject of repentance — Parts of true repentance — Contrition — 
Faith — Its effects — New obedience. Parts of the false repent- 
ance required by Papists — Contrition — Confession — Satisfac- 
tion. The proper design and use of confession and private ab- 
solution 132—139 





It is right for men to seek an entrance into the ministry — The de- 
sign for which this office has been instituted — By whom it has 
been instituted — Who dare enter it — The nature of a call, 140 — 143 



Its existence — Its unity in respect to essence and faith — Its di- 
versity — The true church — The false — The triumphant — The 
militant — The visible — The invisible — The particular — The uni- 
versal — Its members — Holiness — Liability to err — Duration — 
Distinguishing characteristics, ..... 144 — 15.3 



Its grades — What church rites should be retained — Dangers aris- 
ing from ascribing to them merit, or considering them neces- 
sary — Scripture testimony on this subject — Duty of Christians 
in regard to these rites, ...... 153 — 163 



Their author — The sacraments of the Old Testament — The true 
sacraments of the New Testament — Baptism — The Lord's Sup- 
per — The sacraments falsely so-called of the Papists — Absolu- 
tion — Confirmation — Extreme unction — Ordination — Marriage 
— The use of the sacraments — Not to benefit ex opere operato — 
But to confer grace through faith, .... 163 — 170 



Its necessity — Its efiTects — Its subjects — Should it be re-adminis- 
tered — Ceremonies by which it is accompanied, . . 170 — 177 



OF THE lord's SUPPER. 


The words of institution — Their meaning literal, not figurative — 
The two essential parts of this sacrament— The real presence — 
Not by transubstantiation, nor by consubstantiation ; but oral, 
sacramental, spiritual — The body and blood of Christ received 
by worthy and unworthy communicants — Both kinds neces- 
sary — Abominations arising from the Romish error concerning 
this article — The design of this ordinance — Arguments for its 
frequent use, 177—194 



Difference between a sacrifice and a sacrament — Propitiatory sac- 
rifice of the Old Testament now abrogated, and of no merit 
ex opere ojierato — Of the New Testament only one and that of 
lasting efficacy — Eucharistic sacrifices, bodily and spiritual — 
The Romish sacrifice of the mass impious and blasphemous, 195 — 199 



Of two kinds — Rules to be observed in reference to them, 199 — 201 


The design of afflictions — The manner in which they are to be 
borne — Grounds of comfort, ...... 201 — 204 



Its necessity — Design and effects — Requisites — Objects for which 
we should pray — Thanksgiving to accompany prayer — God 
alone to be addressed, 204 — 209 





What monasteries oviginally were — What they are now — The 
three vows — Their opposition to God's commands — It is not 
wrong to violate them, ..... . . 209 — 215 



Hfs chief duties — Christians permitted to exercise the functions 
of this office — The Gospel does not abolish civil governments — 
Permits judgment, punishment, the waging of wars, civil con- 
tracts, possession of property, judicial oaths, marriage — Nature 
of the obedience due to civil authorities, . . . 215 — 220 



Its author — In what it consists — Who dare marry — Purity of 
marriage — The ministry allowed to marry, . . . 220 — 225 



Its cause — Its subjectS'T-Comfort in death — Immortality of the 
soul — Condition of disembodied spirits, . . . 225—228 



Its certainty — When and how it will occur, , , . 228 — 229 


Who will arise from the dead — The change of the living — The 
nature of the risen foodies, ...... 230 — 232 





Its certainty — Its subjects — Its form — The rule according to 
which sentence will be pronounced — The sentence — The 
judge, 232—235 



Its locality — Punishments — Eternity — The Romish error in re- 
gard to different classes of the condemned — Christ's descent 
to hell, 235—239 



Its existence — In what it consists, ..... 239 — 242 




1. What are the Holy Scriptures ? 

The Word of God, treating of his being and 
"will, committed to writing by prophets and apos- 
tles, who were moved thereto by the Holy Ghost. 
Generically speaking, all the books of the Bible 
are denoted by the name Holy Scriptures; but 
specifically, this title belongs only to such books 
as are canonical; and hence the term canonical 
has been applied to Scripture itself. {Chemnitz 
Exam. Condi. Trid.) 

2. But do not all the books of the Bible possess one 
and the same authority ? 

No. For some are canonical, and others apoc- 
ryphal. The authority of the former is fixed and 
acknowledged: but the latter, although read by 
the church for the edification of the people, 
should not be used to establish the authority of 
any doctrine. {Jerome, quoted by Chemnitz.) 

3. Why are they called canonical? 

They derive their name from xavm {i. e., rule 
^; ( 13 ) 


or level), since as a perfect rule or most exact 
balance we are to use them to ascertain the 
correctness and true value of all other writings, 
whether of believers or unbelievers; but the Scrip- 
tures themselves we dare not judge by any other 
standard. {Chrysosiom, Homily xiii, on 2d Corin- 

The term canonical is derived from Scripture 

Ps. 19 : 4. Their li?ie is gone out through all the earth. 

Rom. 10 : 18. Their sound went into all the earth. 

Gal. 6 : 16. And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on 
them and mercy. 

Phil. 3 : 16. Whereunto we have already attained, let us walk by 
the same rule, let us mind the same thing. {Chenmitz.) 

4. But ivhence have the canonical Scriptures this 
authority ? 

That the canonical Scriptures are what they 
are, i. e., heavenly truth, arises from no other 
source than from God their author. 

2 Tim. 3 : 16. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is 
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in 

2 Pet. 1 : 21. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of 
man ; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy 

But God himself likewise wished that the ca- 
nonical authority of the Scriptures should be de- 
clared by the church, not indeed by every portion 
of it, but that only which existed at the time in 
which the canonical writers lived; so that the 
church sustains to Scripture the place not of a 
judge, but only of a witness. {0/iemmt?.) 


5. What are the apocryphal books ? 

Those whose origin is obscure, and concerning 
whose authority we have no testimony from those 
persons by whom we have been led to receive 
the canonical Scriptures. (^Augustine.) 

6. Are the Holy Scriptures susceptible of any other 
divisions ? 

They are. For in respect to different times, 
and the different states of the church, they are 
divided into the Old and New Testament ; and in 
respect to their subject-matter, into the law^ the 
prophets, and the gospel. 

7. Are the Holy Scriptures clear and plain 
Exceedingly so, especially in all those passages 

which treat of faith, our justification before God, 
and eternal salvation. 

Ps. 119 : 105. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto 
my path. 

2 Pet. 1 : 19. We have also a more sure word of prophecy ; where- 
unto ye do well that ye take heed as unto a light that shineth in a 
dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your heart. 

8. Are the Holy Scriptures full and sufficient to in- 
struct us in faith and life ? 

Yes. 2 Tim. 3 : 16, 17. All Scripture given by 
inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, for 
reproof, for correction, for instruction in right- 
eousness, that the man of God may be perfect, 
thoroughly furnished unto all good works. 

The preceding verse also says : The Holy Scrip- 
tures are able to make thee wise unto salvation by 
faith which is in Christ Jesus. 


9. Are the canonical Scriptures also a rule and 
judge of church controversies ? 

The only rule and standard according to which 
all doctrines and teachers alike must be valued 
and judged, are the prophetic and apostolic Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testaments, as it is 
written : 

Ps. 119 : 105. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto 
my path. 

Gal. 1 : 8. Though an angel from heaven preach any other gospel 
unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be 
accursed. (Form of Concord, Epitome, Intr. 1.) 

"With our whole heart we receive and embrace the prophetic and 
apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments, as the clear and 
pure fountains of Israel, and believe that these holy writings alone 
are the sole and infallible rule, by which all tenets must be tried, 
and according to which we should judge all doctrines and all teach- 
ers. (Form, of Concord, Sol. Dec, hUr. 3.) 

10. Is the authority of the fathers and of the later 
theologians equal to that of the Scriptures f 

Other writings of ancient and modern teachers, 
whatever their reputation may be, are to be con- 
sidered as m 710 manner of equal authority with the 
Holy Scriptures, but are to be subordinated to them, 
and should not be received otherwise than as wit- 
nesses respecting the manner in which, since their 
times, the pure doctrine of the prophets and apos- 
tles, has been preserved in certain parts of the 
world. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Jntr. 2.) 

11. What are the oecumenical or catholic symbols? 
They are brief and most excellent confessions 

of the Christian faith, firmly established upon the 
word of God, opposing both such heresies as had 


arisen during the age of the Apostles, and others 
which arose after their times. [Form of Concord, 
Sol. Dec, Intr. 8.) 

12. How many symbols are there which belong to 
this class ? 

Three. The Apostle's, the Mcene, and the 

-13. Do our churches recognize any other symbolical 
books ? 

They do. But likewise only as testimonies con- 
cerning the doctrine of their times : yet in an in- 
ferior grade, because approved with less agree- 

14. What are the symbolical books of our churches ? 
I. The Unaltered Augsburg Confession which 

in the year 1530 was presented to the Emperor 
Charles V. at Augsburg. II. The Apology of the 
Augsburg Confession. III. The Smalcald Arti- 
cles. IV. The two Catechisms of Luther. V. The 
Form of Concord. 

15. Have all these symbols which you have men- 
tioned equal authority ? 

No. For those which have been approved by 
the unanimous consent of the whole church (to 
which class belong the three oecumenical sym- 
bols) have far greater authority than those which 
have been received only by particular churches : 
although they all agree in this, that they are to 
be distinguished from the Holy Scriptures by a 
great degree of difference. 



16. How does the authority of the symbolical books 
differ from that of the ivord of God? 

The Holy Scriptures are reco^iized as the sole 
judge, rule, and standard, to which as to the only 
touchstone all doctrines must he brought, and ac- 
cording to whfch they must be judged whetlier 
they be good or evil, true or false. But the sym- 
bols, and other writings, have not the authority 
of a judge : this office belongs alone to the Holy 
Scriptures. [Form of Concord, JSpitome, Inir. 7.) 

17. What then is the design and use of symbolical 
books ? 

To serve only as a testimony and explanation 
of our faith, exhibiting the manner in which, at 
certain times, the Holy Scriptures were under- 
stood and explained, and setting forth the grounds 
upon which doctrines ^conflicting with the Holy 
Scriptures have been refuted. [Form of Concord, 
Epitome, Inir. 8.) 



1. What is the catholic faith concerning Godf 
This is the catholic faith : that we worship the 
one God in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, 
neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the 
essence. For there is one person of the Father, 
another of the Sou, and another of the Holy 


Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, Son and 
Holy Ghost is one, their glory equal, and their 
Majesty co-eternal. [Ailianasian Creed.) 

2. therefore is God? 

God is a Being, spiritual, intelligent, eternal, 
true, good, pure, just, merciful, free, of infinite 
power and wisdom; the Father eternal, who from 
eternity has begotten the Son, his own image; 
and the Son, the co-eternal image of the Father; 
and the Holi/ Ghost, proceeding from the Father 
and the Sou. For the infallible word of divine 
testimony has thus revealed the Godhead, that 
the Father eternal with the Son and Holy Ghost 
has created and preserves heaven and earth, and 
all creatures, and in their preservation is present 
to all; that through the Son he has collected for 
himself from among men A church; and that he 
is also the Judge of the just and unjust. {31e- 
lancthon, Loci.) 

3. Prove that there is bid one God ? 

Deut. 6 : 4. Hear, Israel ; the Lord our God is one Lord. 

Isa. 44 : 6. I am the first, and I am the last ; and besides me there 
is no God. 

Isa. 44 : 8. Is there a God besides me ? 

Mark 12 : 29. And Jesus answered him. The first of all the com- 
mandments is, Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. 

1 Cor. 8 : 4, 6. We know that an idol is nothing in the world, and 
that there is none other God, but one. . . . But to us there is 
but one God the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him ; and 
one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things and we by him. 

4. But are there 7ioi three Gods, if the Father is 
God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is 


The Father indeed is God, and the Son is God, 
and the Holy Ghost is God, when the word god 
is used with regard to person ; and yet there are 
not three gods, hut only one God, when the word 
god is used with regard to essence. So, likewise, 
the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, and the Holy 
Ghost is Lord ; and yet there are not three Lords, 
but only one Lord. For just as the Christian 
truth compels us to acknowledge each person 
taken by itself as God and Lord; so also the 
catholic religion forbids us saying that there are 
three Gods or three Lords. {Athanasian Creed.) 

5. How many persons are there in the Godhead ? 

Three. The Father, made of no one, uncreated 
and unbcgotteu ; the Son of the Father, alone, not 
made, nor created, but from eternity begotten ; 
the Holy Ghost, from- the Father and the Son, 
not made, nor created, nor begotten, but pro- 
ceeding; and these three persons are co-eternal, 
and the same in essence and power. [Athanasian 
Creed, Smalcald Articles.) 

There is therefore one Father, and not three Fathers ; one Son, and . 
not three Sons ; one Holy Ghost, and not three Holy Ghosts. And 
in this Trinity nothing is before or after, nothing is greater or less. 
But all three persons are co-equal and co-eternal with one another. 
{Atha7iasian Creed.) 

The churches among us, with great agreement, teach that the 
decree of the Council of Nice', concerning the unity of the divine 
essence, and the three persons, is true, and, without doubt, to be 
believed ; namely, that there is one divine essence which both is 
called, and is God, eternal, incorporeal, indivisible, of immense 
power, wisdom, and goodness, the Creator and Preserver of all things, 
visible and invisible ; and yet there are three persons of the same 
essence and power, who are also co-eternal, the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. (Avgshurg Covfessio?i, Art. 1.) 


The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three distinct persons in one 
divine essence and nature, are one God who created heaven and 
earth. The Father is of no one, the Son is begotten of the Father, 
the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. (Smaicald 
Articles, Part 1.) 

6. Prove from the Scriptures the doctrine of the 
Trinity ? 

Ps. 33 : 6. By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and 
all the hosts of them by the breath of his mouth. 

Matt. 28 : 19. Go ye, therefore, make disciples of all nations, bap- 
tizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost. 

1 John 5 : 7. There are three that bear record in heaven : the 
Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one. 

7. What is God the Father ? 

The Father is the first person of the Godhead; 
not begotten, nor proceeding; but who from eter- 
nity has begotten the Son, his own image ; who, 
together with the Son and Holy Ghost, creates, 
sustains, preserves and governs all things visible 
and invisible, angels and men ; who has sent his 
Son as the Redeemer of the world, and the Holy 
Ghost as the Sanctifier. {Chemnitz, Loci.) 

8. What is God the Son ? 

The Son is the second person of the Godhead, 
not created, but from eternity begotten by the 
Father, his image, and the brightness of his 
glory, through whom, in the Holy Ghost, the 
Father has created, and sustains, preserves and 
governs all things, visible and invisible, heaven 
and earth, angels and men ; who was sent by the 
Father into the world, in order that by means of 
his assumed human nature he might accomplish 
the work of redemption. [Chemnitz, ih.) 


9. What is God the Holy Ghost ? 

The Holy Ghost is the third person of the God- 
head, not made, nor created, nor begotten, but 
eternally proceeding from the Father and the 
Son, in whom the Father through the Son has 
created, and since their creation sustains, pre- 
serves and governs all things, visible and invisi- 
ble, angels and men ; through the Son, sent by 
the Father in a visible form upon the Apostles ; 
and at the present day sent invisibly by the 
Father through the Son into the hearts of be- 
lievers, in order to sanctify them by means of 
the word and sacraments. {Chemnitz, ib.) 

10. What do the words person and essence, as 
used, in this article, signify ? 

The word •person signifies that which is not a 
part or quality of another; but what subsists of 
itself. Or, a person is a living, indivisible, intel- 
ligent, incommunicable being, not sustained by 
another. Essence, however, denotes that which 
truly exists, even though it be communicated. 
[Melancthon, Examen.) 

They use the word person in the sense in which the church writers 
on this subject have used it to denote not a part or quality in another, 
but what subsists of itself. (Augsburg Cotifessiou, Art. I.) 

11. As the divine nature of the Father has never 
hec7i doubted, and the next article will treat of the divine 
nature of the Son, please here to prove that the Holy 
Ghost is true God ? 

This can be abundantly shown from the Holy 
Scriptures. For, in the first place, the great 


name Jehovah, which belongs as to his essence 
to the one and only God, is ascribed to the Holy- 
Ghost ; as he is that Jehovah who spoke through 
prophets and apostles. 

Num. 12 : 6. Hear now my words : If there be a prophet among 
you, I the Lord will make myself known unto him in a vision, and 
will speak unto him in a dream. 

Acts 1 : 16. This Scripture must needs have been fulfilled which 
the Holy Ghost, by the mouth of David, spake. 

Heb. 3 : 7. Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day, if ye will 
hear his voice, harden not your hearts. 

2 Pet. 1 : 21. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of 
man ; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy 

Secondly. The Holy Ghost is expressly called 
God in Acts 5 : 3, 4, where Peter thus addresses 
Ananiaa: "Why hath Satan filled thine heart to 
lie to the Holy Ghost ? Thou hast not lied unto 
men, but unto God." So also St. Paul in 1 Cor. 
3 : 16, says: "Know ye not that ye are the temple 
of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in 

Thirdly. Those essential attributes and proper- 
ties which belong only to God, are ascribed to the 
Holy Ghost. These are : 

1. Eternity. Heb. 9 : 14. How much more shall the blood of Christ, 
who through the eteriial Spirit offered himself . . . . ? 

2. Omniscience. John 14 : 26. But the Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach 
you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatso- 
ever I have said unto you. 1 Cor. 2 : 10. For the Spirit searcheth all 
things, yea, the deep things of God. 1 Cor. 2 : 11. The things of God 
knoweth no one, but the Spirit of God. 

3. Omnipotence. 1 Cor. 12 : 4.-6. There are diversities of gifts, but 
the same Spirit ; and there are differences of administration, but the 


same Lord ; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same 
God which worketh all in all. 
4. Infinity. Ps. 139 : 7. Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? » 
6. Truth. 1 John 5:6. It is the Spirit that beareth witness, be- 
cause the Spirit is truth. 

6. Wois/np. For the holy angels, in most exalted strains, worship 
also the Spirit, crying unto one another. Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord 
of hosts. Rev. 4:8; Isa. 6:3. 

7. Creation and Preservation. Ps. 33 : 6. By the word of the Lord 
were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his 

8. Finally, Quickening, "Regeneration, Sanctification, and other 
works which belong to a divine nature. John 3:6. Except a man 
be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom 
of God. Matt. 12 : 28. If I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then 
the kingdom of God is come unto you. 1 Cor. 3 : 16. Quoted above. 
{Hunnius on the Holy Trinity.) 



1. What is Christ ? 

Christ is the second person of the Godhead, 
the Son of God ; God of the essence of the Father, 
begotten before the worlds ; and Man of the sub- 
stance of his mother born into the world. (Atha- 
nasian Creed.) 

2. Why is Christ called Jesus or Saviour ? 

The answer is given bj the angel in Matt. 1 : 
21 : " Thou shalt call his name Jesus ; for he 
shall save his people from their sins." 


3. Why is he called Christ ? 

Because according to his human nature, he was 
anointed with infinite fulness of the Holy Ghost. 

Ps. 45 : 7. Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness 
above thy fellows. This passage, Heb. 1 : 9, applies to Christ. 

Upon Christ our Lord, according to his human nature (since accord- 
ing to his divine nature, he is of one essence with the Holy Ghost), 
there rests "the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of 
counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the 
Lord" (Col. 2:3; Isa. 11 : 2; 61 : 1) : and that, too, not in the 
same manner as in other holy men, whose knowledge and power de- 
pend upon the working in them of created gifts by the agency of the 
Holy Ghost, For, since Christ, according to his divine nature, is the 
second person of the Holy Trinity, and from him, not less than from 
the Father, the Holy Ghost proceeds (for the Spirit belongs to both 
Father and Son, and so remains to all eternity, nor is ever separated 
from the Son), through the personal union the whole fulness of the 
Spirit has been communicated to Christ, according to his flesh, which 
was personally united with the Son of God. This freely asserts all its 
power in, with and through the human nature of Christ, not in such 
a manner that Christ, according" to his human nature, knows only 
some things, while he is ignorant of others, and can accomplish some 
things while he cannot accomplish others ; but, according to his as- 
sumed human nature, both his knowledge and power extend to all 
things. For the Father has without measure poured upon the Son 
the Spirit of wisdom and strength, so that through the personal union 
he, as man, has really and truly received all knowledge and power. 
On this account all the treasures of knowledge are hidden in Christ; 
in this manner all power in heaven and earth has been given to him, 
and thus he sits at the right hand of the majesty and power of God. 
{Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. viii, 72.) 

4. Are there then two natures in Christ ? 

Yes. For since the Son of God in the fulness 
of time has become man, there are in this one and 
undivided person of Christ, two distinct natures : 
the divine, which is from eternity ; and the human, 
which in time was assumed in the unity of the 
person of the Son of God. And these two natures 



in tlie person of Christ are never eitlier separated 
or commingled with each other, neither are they 
mutually interchanged, but each nature in the per- 
son of Christ retains its own essence and proper- 
ties to all eternity. [Form of Concord^ Sol. Dec, 
Art. viii, 9.) 

5. How do you prove thai Christ is true God ? 
First. Scripture calls him Jehovah, which is the 

essential name of God. 

Jer. 23 : 6. And this is his name whereby he shall be called, the 
Lord oub righteousness. 

Secondly. He is expressly called God. 

John 20 : 28. And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord 
and my God. 

Eom. 9 : 5. Whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning the 
flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever. 

Thirdly. 'Not only religious worship, but also such 
works are ascribed to Christ, as can be referred in 
no manner to a creature, but only to God. 

Ps. 97 : 7. " Worship him all ye gods" (i. e., angels). 

Heb. 1 : 16, tells us that this passage refers to Christ. " When he 
bringeth the first-begotten into the world, he saith. And let all the 
angels of God worship him." 

John 1 : 1, 2, 3. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning 
with God. All things were made by him, and without him was not 
anything made, that was made. (Hionnuis.) 

6. Did the Son of God assume a true human na- 
ture, of the same substance as ours ? 

In every respect, except that it was without sin. 
Hence our churches utterly reject and condemn 
the figment of Marcion, which teaches that Christ 


did not possess a true human nature consisting 
of soul and body. [Form of Concord, Epitome, viii.) 

John 1 : 14. The word was made flesh. 

Gal. 4 : 4. God sent forth his Son made of a woman. 

Heb. 2 : 14. Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh 
and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same. V. 16. He 
took not on him the nature of angels ; but he took on him the seed of 

John 10 : 18. No man taketh my life (t. e., soul) from me, but I 
lay it down of myself. 

Matt. 26 : 38. My soid is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death. 

Luke 23 : 46 ; Matt. 27 : 50. Father, into thy hands I commend my 
spirit : and having said this he gave up the ghost. 

Athanasian Creed. Perfect God and perfect man, consisting of a 
reasonable soul, and human flesh. 

7. How did the Son of God assume our nature ? 
By being conceived by the Holy Ghost, without 

the interposition of man, and being born of Mary, 
a virgin, ever pure and holy. [Smalcald Articles, 
Part i, Art. 4.) 

8. If there are two entire natures in Christ, does he 
not therefore possess two i^^^sons, and do you not thus 
admit that there are two Chrisis ? 

By no means. For since the incarnation, each 
nature in Christ, does not in any manner subsist 
by itself, so that either is separate, or constitutes 
of itself a separate person ; but these natures are 
so united, as to constitute one person only, in 
which both the divine and the human natures are 
united and subsist together ; so that since the in- 
carnation, not only the divine, but also the as- 
sumed human nature, belong to the entire person 
of Christ; and just as the person of the incarnate 
Son of God cannot be entire without his divinity, 


SO also it cannot be entire without his humanity. 
For just as a rational soul and a body are one 
man, so also God and man'are one Christ. (Form 
of Concord, Sol Dec.,vm,ll. Athanasian Creed.) 

9. How are the two natures in Christ united? 

This union is not such a connection or combi- 
nation that one nature cannot personally (^. e., 
through the personal union) possess a property 
belonging to the other, as when two pieces of 
wood are glued together, in which case neither 
piece imparts or receives anything. This was the 
error of Nestorius and Paul of Samosata, who 
taught that the two natures communicate nothing 
the one to the other. By this false dogma the 
natures are regarded as separate, and thus two 
Christs are constituted, one of whom is the Christ, 
but the other God the Word dwelling in Christ. 
{Form of Concord, epitome and Sol. Dec, Art. viii.) 

10. What then is the personal union ? 

It is a most intimate communion, by which 
Christ's divine and human natures are so united 
as to have a real participation with one another ; 
from which union and communion proceeds all 
that is said and believed concerning God as man, 
and concerning the man Christ as God. [Form of 
Concord, Epitome, and Sol. Dec, Art. viii.) 

That is a most intimate communion which God has with assumed 
humanity ; and from the personal union, and this most intimate and 
unspeakable communion which results therefrom, all that follows 
which is believed and declared concerning God as man, and concern- 
ing the man Christ as God. The ancient teachers of the church used 
to illustrate this union and communion of the natures by the simili- 


tude of iron glowing with heat, and likewise by the union of the body 
and soul in man. (Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. viii, 9.) 

Against this condemnable heresy, the catholic church of Christ has, 
with great simplicity, believed and maintained, that the human and 
divine natures in the person of Christ, arc so united that there is a 
true communion between them. Yet these two natures meet and par- 
ticipate with one another not only in one essence, but also, as Dr. 
Luther says, in one person. On account of this personal union and 
communion, the ancient orthodox teachers of the church very fre- 
quently, not only after, but even before the Council of Chalcedon, 
employed the word mingling, yet in a correct sense and with a proper 
distinction. In confirmation of which many passages might be ad- 
duced from the church fathers, which can be found here and there in 
the writings of our teachers. Learned antiquity has indeed declared 
this personal union and communion of the natures by the similitude 
of the soul and body, and likewise in another manner by that of 
glowing iron. For the soul and body (and so also fire and iron) have 
a communion with each other not merely nominally or verbally, but 
truly and really, yet in such a manner that there is no confusion or 
equalization of the natures, as when a mixture of honey and water 
produces mead ; for such a drink is neither pure honey, nor pure 
water, but a mixed drink composed of both. Far otherwise is it in 
the union of the divine and human nature in the person of Christ ; 
for the union and communion of the divine and human in the person 
of Christ is far more exalted and inexpressible, on account of which 
union and communion God is man, and man is God. Yet by this union 
and communion of natures, neither the natures themselves, nor their 
properties are confounded, but each nature retains its own essence and 
properties. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. viii.) 

11. Are the effects of this union of but one kind? 

They are not, but can and should be distin- 
guished into two classes ; the former of which is 
the most intimate communion or participation of 
the natures with each other, and the latter the true 
and real participation of the properties or the at- 
tributes of the one nature with the other. 

On account of this personal union (without which a participation 
of the natures with each other, neither can exist, or be conceived of), 
it was not a mere human nature, one of whose attributes it is to suffer 



and die, which suffered for the sins of the whole world, but it was the 
Son of God (yet according to his human nature) who truly suffered, 
and, as the Apostles' Creed testifies, truly died, although a divine 
nature can neither suffer nor die. This Dr. Luther fully and firmly 
declares in his Larger Confession concerning the Lord's Supper, where 
he rejects as a mask of the devil, and condemns in unmeasured terms 
the blasphemous allceosis of Zwingle, who maintained that one nature 
was taken and understood for the other. {Form of Concord, Epitome, 
Art. viii, 20.) 

12. How do these natures participate with one an- 
other f 

• The manner in which the natures participate 
with each other is such that God is truly man, 
and man is truly God ; which could not at all be, 
if the human and divine natures had no real par- 
ticipation. For how could man, the Son of Mary, 
truly be, or with truth be called the Son of God, 
the Most High, if his humanit}'^ were not person- 
ally united with the Son of God, and if he thus 
actually had nothing in common with the latter, 
except the mere name ? [Form of Concord, Epitome^ 
Art. viii, 10.) 

13. But do the Holy Scriptures make statements of 
this kind f 

They do. Compare Jer. 23 : 5 with 23 : 15. 

Matt. 16 : 16. Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 

Matt. 22 : 45. The Son of David is David's Lord. 

Luke 1 : 31, 32. Thou shalt bring forth a son, and shall call his 
name Jesus; he shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the 

Rom. 1 : 3. His Son Jesus Christ, which was made of the seed of 
David, according to the flesh. 

1 Cor. 15 : 47. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 

For this reason, the Form of Concord correctly 


infers that the Virgin Mary did not conceive and 
bring forth a mere man ; and hence she is cor- 
rectly called the mother of God, which she truly 
is. {Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. viii, 12.) 

14. Before jproceeding to the consideration of the 
communicaiio idiomatum, lei us first inquire what are 
the idiomata or attributes of the divine nature? 

The attributes or properties of the divine nature 
are these : to be omnipotent, eternal, infinite, and, 
according to the properties of its own nature, and 
its natural essence, to be of itself omnipresent, 
and to know all things. All these are not attri- 
butes of the human nature, neither can they ever 
become such. 

15. What are the attributes of the human nature ? 
To possess a body, to consist of flesh and blood, 

to be finite and circumscribed, to suffer, to die, to 
ascend, to descend, to move from place to place, 
to hunger, to thirst, to experience cold, heat, and 
similar things. These neither are, nor ever can 
become, attributes of the divine nature. [Form of 
Concord, Epitome, Art. viii, 8.) 

16. What is the character of the communicatio idio- 
matum ? 

It is not a communication of essence or of sub- 
stance; for this would be nothing else than a 
mingling of the attributes, resulting in such an 
equalization of the natures, as was taught by 

We believe, teach, and confess, that the divine and human natures 
are not mingled in one substance, or changed into one another, but 


that each nature retains its own essential properties, which cannot 
become the properties of the other nature. {Porm of Concord, 'Epitome, 
Art. viii, 6.) 

17. WTiat then is its nature ? 

It is such as is taught by the Scriptures, namely, 
a true or real communication, which results from 
the personal union and communion of the natures 
in Christ, concerning which the Apostle says, in 
Col. 2:9," In him dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily," i. e., in his assumed flesh, as in 
his temple. 

18. Are there firm and reliable Scriptural proofs 
for the communicaiio idiomaium ? 

That this communication is not merely a form 
of speech, but that it has a real and true existence, 
can be shown by three incontrovertible arguments. 

19. What is the first? 

First, there is a universal rule approved by the 
whole orthodox church, which declares that what- 
ever Scripture affirms Christ has received in time refers 
not to Ids divinity, according to which from eter- 
nity he possessed all things ; but that reference 
is made to the person of Christ, who, in respect 
to his assumed human nature, was made the re- 
cipient of these objects. [Form of Concord^ Sol. 
Dec, Art. viii, 57.) 

20. What is the second? 

The Scriptures clearly testify that the power to 
quicken and to judge is given to Christ, because 
he is the Son of man, and because he has flesh 
and blood. {lb., 68.) 


John 5 : 27. And hath given him authority to execute judgment 
also, because he is the Son of man. 

John 6 : 51. I am the living bread which came down from heaven; 
if any man eat of this bread he shall live forever. 

21. What is the third? 

Scripture makes mention of the Son of man not 
only in general terms, but, as it were, points its 
finger towards liis assumed human nature, when 
it says, 1 John 1 : 7, The blood of Jesus Christ, 
his Son, cleanseth us from all sin. {lb., 59.) 

22. What is the meaning of this passage of Scrip- 

It refers not merely to the merit of Christ's blood, 
which once for all was acquired on the cross ; but 
John likewise here tells us that in justification not 
only Christ's divine nature, but also his blood has 
efficacy to cleanse us from all sin. Thus the flesh 
of Christ is quickening food, [lb., 59.) 

23. Is this communicatio idiomatum of but one 
kind ? 

Three difi"erent kinds are mentioned in Scrip- 
ture : The ^rs^ is when the properties of only one 
nature are ascribed to the other nature, not sepa- 
rately, but in the whole person, which is at the 
same time both God and man, whether it be called 
God or whether it be called man; yet so that it is 
distinctly declared, according to which nature the 
property is ascribed to the whole person. 

24. Please to give some examples of this kind from 

Rom. 1 : 3. The Son of God made of the seed 


of David,- according to the flesh. Luke 1 : 31. 
The Son of God born of the Virgin Mary. To 
this head belong also all those passages of Scrip- 
ture which show that the Son of God, by assuming 
human nature, assumed and actually appropriated 
to himself all its attributes. For this reason the 
Holy Scriptures ascribe to the Son of God attri- 
butes which belong to his humanity. 

Acts 20 : 28. Feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with 
his oivii blood. 

Gal. 2 : 20. The Son of God, who loved me, anAgave himself for me. 

Rom. 8 : 32. God spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for 
us all. 

Gal. 4 : 4. God sent forth his Son, made of a woman. 

1 John 1 : 1. The AVord of life, which we have seen with our eyes, 
which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled. 

In the first place, since there are in Christ two distinct natures, 
which, in their essences and properties, are neither changed nor con- 
founded, and yet the two natures have but one person ; those proper- 
ties which belong only to one nature are attributed not to that nature 
only as if separated, but to the whole person (which is at the same 
time God and man), whether called God or man. 

But from this manner of speakings it does not follow that those 
properties which are ascribed to the whole person, belong to both 
natures ; but it is to be distinctly declared according to which nature 
anything is ascribed to the entire person. The Apostle Paul -speaks 
in this manner when he says, concerning Christ, Rom. 1 : 3, that he 
was of the seed of David, according to the flesh. Peter, likewise, 
says, concerning Christ (1 Ep. 3 : 18 ; 4 : 1), that he was put to death 
in the flesh, and that ho sufl'ered in the flesh. 

But, since both open and secret sacramentarians conceal their per- 
nicious error under the rule, that " what is the property of one nature 
is ascribed to the whole person," when they name the whole person, 
they nevertheless understand only the one nature, and that, too, 
merely as it exists in itself, but entirely exclude the other nature, as 
if only a mere human nature sufiered for us. We desire to repeat at 
this place the words of Dr. Lutber, from his Larger Confession con- 
cerning the Lord's Supper, in which he treats of ike allaosis of Zwin- 


gle, in order that the church of God may be secured in the best man- 
ner against this error. These are his words : 

" Zwingle names that an allaosis which ascribes an attribute of 
the human nature to the divine nature of Christ, and the reverse. 
For example, where Scripture saj-s, Luke 24 : 26, ' Ought not Christ 
to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?' There, 
Zwingle triflingly declares that the word Christ refers to his human 
nature. Beware ! beware ! I say, of that allceosis, for it is a mask 
of the devil, which will at length fashion such a Christ, according to 
which I am sure that I do not wish to be a Christian. For its design 
is that Christ should be nothing else than any other sanctified one, 
and that his passion and life should accomplish nothing more than 
would that of such a person. For, if I permit myself to be persuaded 
that the human nature alone suffered for me, Christ is not to me a 
Saviour of great worth, for he himself stands in need of a Saviour. 
In a word, language cannot express what the devil designs to accom- 
plish by means of this a/laos/s.^' Again, a few sentences after : " If 
this old sorceress, Dame Reason, the grandmother of this allmosis, 
attempts to cry back, saying. Divine nature can neither suflFer, nor 
die ; reply, That is, indeed, true ; yet, because the divine and human 
natures in Christ constitute one person, Scripture, on account of the 
personal union, ascribes all that to the divine nature which befalls the 
human nature, and, in turn, all to the human, which belongs to the 
divine nature. This, too, is true. For when Christ is presented to 
you, you must say, This person suffers and dies ; but this person is 
true God : and hence it is correctly said, The Son of God suffers. 
For although one part of him (so to speak), namely, his divine nature, 
does not suffer ; yet that person which is God suffers in his other part, 
namely, in his human nature. For the Son of God, i e., the person 
which is God, was truly crucified for us. For this person, this person 
I say, was crucified according to his human nature." 

And again after some other things : " If there be such an allceosis as 
Zwingle proposes, in Christ, there will be of necessity two persons, 
namely, a divine and a human, inasmuch as all passages of Scripture 
which treat of the passion, Zwingle refers only to the human nature, 
and altogether separates them from the divine nature. For where 
the works are torn asunder and separated, there also we must divide 
the person, since all works and all sufferings are ascribed not to the 
natures, but 'to the person. For it is the person itself which does and 
suffers all these things, this, indeed, according to this nature, and that 
according to the other nature; all of which is fully known to our 
learned men. Wherefore we recognize our Lord Jesus Christ as God 


and man in one person, not confounding the natures nor dividing the 

Likewise, in his work Concerning the Councils and the Church, Dr. 
Luther writes : " We Christians must know that, if God were not on the 
other side of the balance, and did not overcome by his weight, we, on 
our side, would be borne down to ruin. By this I mean, that if God 
had not died for us, and if man alone had died for us, then, indeed, 
we would be utterly undone. But if the death of God, and the fact 
that God died for us, is placed on the other scale, then he is borne 
downwards ; but we, like the empty and lighter scale, rise aloft. He 
can, indeed, rise upwards, or leave the scale ; but he could not de- 
scend and occupy the scale, unless he had been like us, i. e., he be- 
came man in order that it might truly and correctly be said concerning 
him, 'God died,' 'the passion of God,' 'the blood of God,' 'the 
death of God.' For God could not die in his own nature. But, 
since God and man have been united in one person, it is right to say, 
' God died,' since that man died, who is one thing, or one person with 

So far we have quoted Luther. From this it is evident, that they 
err who have said and written that the propositions which we have 
mentioned (God sufiered, God died) are only verbal expressions, i. «., 
mere words, without any corresponding reality. For our simple Chris- 
tian faith teaches, that the Son of God, who became man, suffered and 
died for us, and redeemed us with his blood. {Form of Concord, Sol. 
Bee., Art. viii, 36-45.) 

25. What is the second kind of communicaiio idio- 
matum ? 

The second kind has respect to the office of 
Christ, where the person acts and operates, not 
in, with, through, or according to one nature 
only; but, on the contrary, in, with, according to 
and through both natures ; or, as the Council of 
Chalcedon says: '•^ Each nature does or 2Jerforms 
whatever belongs to each, with communication of the 
other. '^ {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art... viii, 47.) 

26. What propositions in the Scriptures refer to this 
kind of communicatio idiomatum ? 


Those that declare that Christ is our Mediator, 
Redeemer, King, High-Priest, Head, Shepherd, 
etc., not only according to one nature, whether 
his divinity or humanity, but according to both 

27. Prove this from Scripture. 

Scripture clearly affirms that Christ, both ac- 
cording to his human and his divine nature, is 
our Mediator. The following passages show that 
Christ's work of mediation was performed ac- 
cording to both natures : 

Jer. 23 : 6, and 33 : 16 ; 1 John 3 : 8. For this purpose the Son of 
God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. 

Gen. 3 : 15. The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head. 

Luke 9 : 56. The Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, 
but to save them. 

1 Tim. 2 : 5. There is one Mediator between God and man, the man 
Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all. 

28. What is the third kind of communicatio idio- 
matum ? 

Under the third kind are classed those proposi- 
tions in which the Holy Scriptures expressly tes- 
tify that the human nature in Christ, because of 
its personal union with the divine nature, has re- 
ceived, over and above its natural, essential, and 
permanently inherent human properties, also spe- 
cial, high, great, supernatural, inscrutable, ineffa- 
ble and heavenly prerogatives of majesty and 
glory, of power and might, over everything that 
is named not only in this world, but also in the 
world to come. {Form of Concord, Sol Dec, Art. 
viii, 61.) 



29. Cite from, Scripture such passages as confirm 
this statement. 

Matt. 11 : 27. All things are delivered unto me from the Father. 

Matt. 28 : 18. All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 

John 3 : 34. God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. 

John 5 : 27. And hath given him authority to execute judgment 
also ; because he is the Son of man. 

Eph. 1 : 20, 21. God raised Christ from the dead, and set him at his 
own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality, and 
power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named not 
only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 

In this we advance nothing new, but embrace and repeat the dec- 
laration which the ancient orthodox church has drawn from the holy 
Scriptures, and transmitted uncorrupted to us, namely, that this divine 
virtue, life, power, mnjesty, and glory, have been given to the assumed 
human nature in Christ. But this has not been effected in the same 
manner as the Father from eternity has communicated his own essence 
and his properties to the Son, according to his divine nature; on 
which account the Son is of the same essence with the Father, and 
equal to him. For it is only in his divine nature that Christ is equal 
to the Father ; in bis human nature he is beneath God. From this 
it is evident that we do not -maintain any confusion, equalization, or 
abolition of the natures in Christ. Hence, the power of quickening 
does not belong to the flesh of Christ in the same manner as it does to 
his divine nature, of which this is an essential property. But this 
communication was not effected by any essential or natural emptying 
of the properties of the divine nature into the human nature, as if 
Christ's human nature had these properties in itself, and when sepa- 
rate from the divine essence : or, as if through that communication the 
human nature in Christ entirely laid aside its natural and essential 
properties, and either by being changed into the divine nature, or by 
having these its own properties communicated to this nature, in and 
of itself became equal to the divine ; or that the natural and essential 
properties and works of both natures were the same or equal. For in 
ancient and approved councils these and like errors have been justly 
rejected and condemned from the holy Scriptures. In no manner 
dare we make or admit either a conversion, a confusion, or an equal- 
ization of the natures or essential properties in Christ. 

And, indeed, by these words {real communion, to be really commu- 
nicatrd) we by no means wish to teach any physical communication or 
essential transfusion (by which the natures might be confounded in 


their essences or essential properties), as some have not hesitated, by 
a false interpretation, contrary to their own conscience, craftily and 
maliciously to pervert these words and expressions, in order to heap 
upon the pure doctrine grave suspicions. By these words and expres- 
sions we oppose a mere verbal communication, since some imagine 
that the commtmicatio idiomatnm is nothing else than an expression 
and form of speech, i. e., only mere words, names, and empty titles ; 
and they press this verbal communication so far that they do not wish 
to hear of any other. Therefore, in order to declare aright the majesty 
of Christ, we have used the words real communication to signify that 
a communication truly and actually occurred, although without any 
confusion of natures or essential properties. 

We therefore hold and teach, with the ancient orthodox church, as 
it declared the doctrine of holy Scripture, that the human nature in 
Christ has received its majesty after the manner of the personal 
union, namely, that since the whole fulness of the Godhead dwells in 
Christ, not indeed as in holy men and angels, but bodily, as in its 
own body, it shines forth in the assumed human nature in all its maj- 
esty, virtue, glory, and operation, voluntarily when and as it seems 
good to Christ, and in, with and through this assumed human nature 
exercises, employs and fulfils its virtue, majesty, and efiBcacy ; and 
this it does in somewhat the same manner in which the soul acts in 
the body, and fire in iron glowing with heat. For by this similitude, 
as we have previously shown, all learned and pious antiquity has set 
forth this doctrine. But during this state of humiliation this majesty 
was for the most part hidden and concealed. Now, however, since 
the form of a servant has been laid aside, the majesty of Christ exerts 
itself fully, effectively and manifestly before all the saints in heaven 
and on earth ; and in that other and most blissful life we will see this 
his glory face to face, as we are told in John 17 : 24. {Form of Co?i- 
cord, Sol. Dec, Art. viii, 61-65.) 

30. What is the character of this communication ? 

It is true and real ; through it the human na- 
ture in Christ has received this majesty by reason 
of the personal union. For since all the fulness 
of the Godhead dwells in Christ, not as in holy 
men and angels, but bodily, as in its own body; 
on this account, the human nature is truly and 
really endowed with all majesty, power and glory, 


and the "Word or the Son of God, in, with and 
through it, exercises, employs and fulfils his own 
power, glory and efficiency. [Form of Concord^ 
Sol. Dec, Art. viii, 64.) 

31. Do the Holy Scriptures particularize any di- 
vine attributes loMch are especially conspicuous in and 
through the assumed humanity ? 

They do. For although all the fulness of the 
Godhead dwells in the assumed human nature, as 
in its own temple (Col. 2 : 9), yet Scripture par- 
ticularizes some divine attributes, which through 
the human nature especially perform their opera- 
tions. These are : 

1. Omnipotence. Matt. 28 : 18. All power is given unto me in 
heaven, and in earth. Heb. 2 : 8. Thou hast put all things in sub- 
jection under his feet ; for in that he put all in subjection under him, 
he left nothing that is not put under him. 

2. Omniscience. Col. 2:3. In v?hom are hid all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge. John 2 : 25. And needed not that any 
should testify of man ; for he knew what was in man. 

3. The power to impart life. John 6:51. I am the living bread 
which came down from heaven ; if any man eat of this bread, he 
shall live forever ; and the bread Ihat I will give is my flesh, which I 
will give for the life of the world. 1 Cor. 15 : 45. The last Adam was 
made a quickening spirit. 

4. Tlie power to forgive sitis. Matt. 9 : 6. The Son of man hath 
power on earth to forgive sins. Compare Mark 2:10; Luke 5 : 24. 

5. Tiie power to judge. John 5 : 27. And hath given him authority 
to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man. 

6. Worsi/ip. Phil. 2 : 9, lO.' That at the name of Jesus, every knee 
should how, of things in heaven, and things inearth, and things under 
the earth ; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is 
Lord, to the glory of God the Father. Heb. 1 : 6. And let all the 
angels of God worship him. 

7. Omnipresence. Matt. 18 : 20. Where two or three are gathered 
together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Matt. 28 : 20. 
I am with you alway even unto the end of the world. Eph. 1 : 23. 


And bath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over 
all things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him tliat 
filleth all in all. Eph. 4 : 10. He that descended is the same also 
that ascended up far above all heavens, that he mighty/;! all things. 
Wherefore those passages of Scripture which speak concerning the 
majesty to which the human nature in Christ has been exalted, we 
should not understand as meaning that the divine majesty which be- 
longs to the divine nature of the Son of God, is to be ascribed only 
to that nature in Christ, or that that majesty exists in the human 
nature of Christ in such a manner that this nature has only the 
bare title and name of majesty, but in truth has no communica- 
tion with it whatever. For since God is a spiritual, indivisible 
essence, everywhere present in all creatures, and especially so in be- 
lievers and saints, in whom he dwells in a peculiar manner, and as 
wherever he is there he has with him his'majesty ; then according to 
this false hypothesis, it could be said that the whole fulness of the 
Godhead dwells bodily in all creatures whom God inhabits, but espe- 
cially in the elect who are the temples of God, then also in them all 
treasures of wisdom and knowledge are hid, and to them all power in 
heaven and earth is given, since the Holy Spirit who has all power in 
heaven and earth is given to believers. But in this manner there 
would be no distinction between Christ in his human nature, and other 
holy men ; and he would be -deprived of that majesty which as a man 
or in his human nature he received above »}1 other creatures. For 
no creature, whether man or angel either could or should say, "All 
power is given unto me in heaven and in earth." Although God is 
in the elect in all the fulness of his divinity, which he has every- 
where with him, yet he does not dwell in them bodily, nor is he per- 
sonally united with them, as he dwells bodily in Christ. For on ac- 
count of the personal union, Christ in his human nature says. Matt. 
28 : 18, "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth." And 
again John 13 : 3, Jesus knew that the Father had given all things 
into his hand. So also, Col. 2 : 9, In him dwelleth all the fulness 
of the Godhead. Ps. 8 : 6, Heb. 2 : 7 sg-. ; 1 Cor. 15 : 27. {Form of 
Concord, Sol. Bee, Art. viii, 67-70. ' See also note to Question 3.) 

32. But did Christ according to his human nature 
always exert and make use of that divine glory which 
had been communicated to him ? 

Although Christ, according to his assumed hu- 
man nature, even in its conception and in the 



womb of his mother, possessed this communi- 
cated divine glory ; and although he never lost it 
or laid it aside, yet, as the Apostle testifies, he 
" made himself of no reputation," and, in the 
state of humiliation held it concealed, and made 
use of it not always, hut only as often as seemed 
good to him. [Form of Concord^ Sol. Dec, Art. 
viii, 26.) 

33. Does Christ noio use his state of humiliation ? 
No. For now he has ascended to heaven, not 

merely as every saint has done, but as the Apostle 
testifies, he ascended above all heavens that he 
might fill all things, and therefore he reigns not 
only as God, but also as man everywhere present, 
and rules from sea to sea and to the ends of the 
earth; as the Prophets foretell concerning him, 
and the Apostles bear witness that Christ every- 
where worked with them. Markl6: 19,20. (76., 27.) 

. Mark 16 : 19, 20. So then after the Lord had spoken to them, he 
was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God ; and 
they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with 
them, and confirming the word with signs following. 

34. But does not this conflict luith the assertion that 
Christ ascended into heaven, and sitteih at the right 
hand of God ? 

In no way. For Christ ascended into heaven 
to sit at the right hand of God, and to reign over 
all creatures ; yet these things did not occur in an 
earthly manner, but as Dr. Luther has explained 
it, in a way corresponding to the manner of the 
right hand of God, which is not a particular cir- 
cumscribed place in heaven ; but is the almighty 


power of God, which fills heaven and earth, the 
possession of which Christ truly assumed in his 
human nature. {Augsburg Confession, Avi.m.', Form 
of Concord, Art. viii, 28.) 

35. What yet concerning Christ remains for us to 
consider ? 

As we have hitherto been considering the per- 
son of Christ, we must yet treat of his ofiice, 
which is twofold, viz. : kingly and priestly. 

36. What is Christ's priestly office ? 

It is that in which he offered himself to God 
the Father, as a sacrifice for the sins of the whole 
world, not only for the guilt of original sin, but 
also for all the actual sins of men; and by which 
he has freed us from the captivity of sin, of death, 
and of the devil, and has introduced us into the 
liberty of adoption. 

Heb. 9 : 12. Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his 
own blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained 
eternal redemption for us. 

1 John 2 ; 1, 2. If any man sin we have an advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous ; and he is the propitiation for our 
sins, and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 

A sacrifice not only for original guilt, but also for all the actual sins 
of men. {Augsbtirg Confession, Art. iii.) 

When now it is asked, What do you believe in the second article 
concerning Jesus Christ? reply briefly, thus : I believe that Jesus 
Christ, the true Son of God, became my Lord. What is meant then by 
becoming Lord? It is this : that by his own blood he has delivered 
me from sins, the devil, death, and all evil. For, before I had neither 
a King nor Lord, but was held captive under the power and sway of 
the devil, condemned to death, and bound in sins and blindness. 

The sum of this article is, that the word Lord simply signifies 
Saviour or Redeemer, i. e., he who leads us back from the devil to 


God, from death to life, and from sins to righteousness, in ■which he 
likewise preserves us. {Larger Catechism, Part ii, 27, 31.) 

37. What is Christ's Mngly office ? 

It is that iu which Christ ascended to heaven, 
and received dominion at the right hand of the 
Father, so that the devil and all powers being 
thrust beneath his feet might be forced to obey 
him; until, ultimately, on the last day, he will 
separate and divide us from this wicked world, 
from the devil, death, and sins, and will crown us 
with eternal glory and honor, as Dr. Luther de- 
clares in the Larger Catechism. [Larger Catechism, 
Part ii, 31.) 

Ps. 110 : 2. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion ; 
rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. 

Acts 3 : 15. And killed the Prince of life. 

Heb. 2 : 10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom 
are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain 
of their salvation perfect through suffering. 

38. What is the character of Christ's kingdom ? 
It is spiritual and eternal. John 18 : 36. My 

kingdom is not of this world. Luke 1 : 33. He 
shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and 
of his kingdom there shall be no end. 

39. What benefits do both kingdoms of Christ con- 
fer upon us ? 

1. Faith; 2. The forgiveness of sins; 3. Justifi- 
cation; 4. Reconciliation with God; Salvation and 
eternal glory. 




1. What does the word Create signify ? 

It means either simply to make something out 
of nothing, or produce something from a crude 
and chaotic mass. Figfiratively, the Apostle ap- 
plies it to our spiritual regeneration and sanctiii- 
tion. Eph. 2 : 10. We are created in Christ Jesus 
unto good works. [3Ielanchthon and Hunnius.) 

2. What is creation? 

Creation is an external action of the whole 
Trinity, by which God, according to his own free 
will, within six days, brought forth out of nothing, 
all created objects, both visible and invisible.^ 

3. How do you prove that creation is a work of the 

From Scripture, Gen. 1 : 1,2. For that the word 
said does not denote merely a perishing word, but 
the substantial word of God, i. e., the Son of God, 
is evident from the testimony of John. 

Jolin 1 : 1-3. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was God ; the same was in the beginning 
with God. All things were made by him ; and without him was not 
anything made that was made. 

So also the testimony of Ps. 33 : 6. By the word of the Lord were the 
heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth. 

4. Why does the Apostles' Greed ascribe the work 
of Creation to the Father alone? 

Because in this work the Father especially re- 


vealed himself as the Father and Creator of all 
created things. ^ 

5. Of what material did God create the luorld ? 

In the beginning God created, out of no pre- 
existing material, the crude and chaotic mass, 
from which he afterwards produced and formed 
heaven and earth, and the rest of created things. 

Ps. 148 : 5. Let them praise the name of the Lord ; for he com- 
manded, and they were created. 

Heb. 11:3. Through faith we understand that the worlds were 
framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not 
made of things which do appear. 

6. What were the especial causes on account of 
which God created this universe ? 

The iynpelling cause was God's infinite goodness, _ 
who, inasmuch as he is supremely good, wished 
to share most liberally with us a portion of this 

Johnl : 3. See Q. 3. Heb. 1 : 2. Hath in these last days spoken 
unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by 
whom also he made the worlds. 

The fnal cause was that in turn he might be 
acknowledged and worshipped by his creatures. 

Ps. 19:1. The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament 
showeth his handy work. 

1 Cor. 3 : 22. Whether the world, or life, or death, or things pres- 
ent, or things to come ; all are yours. 

7. What loas the order of creation ? 
Although God, according to his infinite power, 

in one moment could have created and completed 
all things in heaven and earth ; yet he preferred 
to produce them in a certain order, and in six 


days to construct aud furnisli the world. The 
work of each day is expressed by the following 
verses of George Fabricins : 

On the^rs^ day he brought forth light; on the 
second, established the heavens. 

On the third, appeared the earth; on the/owr^A, 
shone sun and moon. 

On the ffth, he filled the vast orb with its 
various animals; and on the sixtJiy Adam was 
formed in his Maker's image and likeness. 



l^Did God create the angels'^ 


Ps. 104 : 4. Who maketh his angels spirits ; his ministers a flaming 

Col. 1 : 16. By him were all things created, that are in heaven, and 
that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or 
dominions, or principalities, or powers. 

But on what precise day God created them, the 
Holy Scriptures do not expressly mention; and 
our ignorance of this matter will not prove of the 
least disadvantage t.o us. [Hunnius.) 

2. What are angels ? 

Spiritual beings whom God has created after 
his own image in transcendent perfection, wis- 


clom, justice, and holiness ; so that they may serve 
him, watch over his elect, and enjoy eternal hap- 

3. From xohat maierial were the angels created? 
They could not have been created from the 

essence of God, for then they would be' gods. 
iNeither could they have been created from the 
original crude and chaotic mass, for then they 
would be corporeal. But God, by his almighty 
power, produced them from nothing. 

4. In what condition ivere the angels created? 
The augels were created holy and with a free 

will; but in such a manner also that they had the 
power to abuse their freedom of will, and incline 
themselves to evil. 

5. How many kinds of angels are there? 

Two kinds : Good and bad. Those are called 
good who not only have retained that character in 
which they were originally created, but also have 
become so confirmed in good that there is no 
longer any possibility for them to fall. 

6. How great is the perfection of the angels? 

It is indeed great, but in many ways inferior to 
that of God. For although the kind of holiness 
which they possess is perfect, yet it is not of such 
a nature that they can communicate it to any one. 
On this account, they could not accomplish the 
work of redemption. So also their knowledge is 
unspeakably great ; but yet this is of such a char- 
acter as to be capable of being increased by the 


revelation of the mysteries of the Gospel, con- 
cerning which, previous to its publication, accord- 
ing to the eternal counsel of God, even the angels 
were ignorant. So, also, their 'power is indeed 
great, yet it is limited in such a manner that it 
is in every way inferior to the power of God ; 
neither do they derive this power from their 
own nature. 

7. Are there different orders of angels ? 

That there are different orders is evident from 
the fact, that Scripture calls Michael an archangel, 
and one of the chief princes (Dan. 10 : 13) ; and 
mentions some as thrones, and others as dominions, 
and others as, 'principalities, and still others as poioers 
(Col. 1 : 16). But, whether there be nine orders of 
angels, as the schoolmen taught, or what the dis- 
tinction between these orders is, we cannot state 
with any certainty, as on this subject Scripture 
observes a profound silence. 

8. What is the office of the good angels f 

1. Perpetually to praise God. 

Isa. 6 : 3. And one cried unto another and said, Holy, holy, holy 
is the Lord of hosts ; the whole earth is full of his glory. 

2. To execute God's commandments, and to 
announce his will. This is evident from the his- 
tory of Hagar, Abraham, and Jacob, and that of 
the conception and birth both of John the Bap- 
tist and of Christ our Saviour. 

3. To guard the safety of the pious. 

Heb. 1 : 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to min- 
ister for them who shall be heirs of salvation. 


Ps. 91 : 11. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash 
thy foot against a stone. 

4. After death to carry the souls of the pious 
to Abraham's bosom, or everlasting life. 

Luke 16 : 22. The beggar died, and was carried by the angels into 
Abraham's bosom. 

5. Finally, on the last day to attend Christ, the 
universal judge, to separate the wicked from the 
righteous, and to consign them to the lake of 

Matt. 13 : 40-42. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned 
in the fire, so shall it be in the end of the world. The Son of man 
shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom 
all things that offend, and them which do iniquity ; and shall cast 
them into a furnace of fire j there shall be wailing and gnashing of 

Matt. 13 : 49, 50 ; 25 : 31. When the Son of man shall come in his 
glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the 
throne of his glory. 

1 Thess. 4 : 16. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven 
with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of 

Matt. 24 : 31. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a 
trumpet, and they shall gather together the elect from the four winds. 

9. Dare lue adore angels, or yray to them ? 

No. For they themselves earnestly refuse to 
receive such worship. 

Rev. 19 : 10. And I fell at his feet to worship him, And he said 
unto me. See thou do it not ; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy 
brethren that have the testimony of Jesus : worship God. 

10. As you have said before, that there are had an- 
gels, please to state what ihey are ? 

Bad angels or devils are spirits, originally cre- 
ated by God in the same integrity, righteousness 
and holiness as the other class of angels; but 


who from their own free will having turned away 
from their Creator, and become his enemies, have 
been cast from this state and shut up in eternal 
coademnation. . 

11. Whence do you prove this ? 

From the Scriptures. For Christ himself spoke 
thus, John 8 : 44 : The devil abode not in the 
truth. So also, 2 Pet. 2:4: God spared not the 
angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, 
and delivered them into chains of darkness to be 
reserved unto judgment. Jude in his Epistle, 
verse 6, writes that the bad angels did not keep 
their first estate. 

12. What caused the sin of the devils ? 

The devils sinned not on account of any in- 
herent depravity, neither were they induced 
thereto by any irresistible impulse, or any decree 
of God ; but Satan sinned of his own. John 8 : 44. 
"When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh it of his 
own. ' 

13. Bui whence did the sin of the devil originate f 
It originated from the abuse of that free will, 

with which he was created. This will was moved 
from its object when, deceived by the contempla- 
tion and extravagant admiration of its own an- 
gelic dignity and excellency, it deemed obediente 
to any authority unworthy of itself. 

14. Did the devil in this manner cmiract the guilt 
of sin ? 

He did. For by this very admiration of him- 


self, giving to the creature that obedience which 
was due to the Creator, he sundered from God, 
both himself and as many others as he carried 
away with him into the fellowship of sin. Pride 
therefore was Satan's sin : this is evident from the 
fact that in accordance with his old disposition, 
he instilled into the souls of our first parents the 
same sin, i. e., the desire to become gods. 

Gen. 3 : 4, 5. And the serpent said. Ye shall not surely die : For 
God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be 
opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. {Luther on 
Getiesis. ) 

15. What are the works and desires of had angels f 
They are in all things contrary to the works 

and desires of the good angels. For 1. They do 
not praise God ; but slander him. 2. They per- 
vert the commandments and desires of God; or 
at least hinder men from performing them. 3. 
They endeavor to prevent the spread of the Gos- 
pel. 4. They lay snares for the pious. 5. They 
exult over the crimes and eternal punishment of 
the wicked. 

16. What knowledge do devils possess ? 

As the foreknowledge of future events is an at- 
tribute belonging only to God, the devils do not 
possess it, except only in so far as they learn it 
ffom divine revelation ; or by reasoning from con- 

Neither have they any a priori perception of 
the thoughts of men; for this is also an attribute 
belonging only to God. Neither do they know 


those thouglits whicli the Holy Ghost suggests 
to the pious. 

17. What 'power have they ? 

Their power is indeed great, but so circum- 
scribed by God's government, that without his 
permission, they cannot even possess swine (Matt. 
8 : 31), or create lice (Ex. 8 : 18). 

Matt. 8 : 31. The devils besought him saying, If thou cast us out, 
suffer us to go away into the herd of swine. 

Ex. 8 : 18. And the magicians did so. with their enchantments to 
bring forth lice, but they could not. 

18. Have they any hope of redemption ? 

Il^Tone whatever. For they cannot make satis- 
faction .for their own sins; neither does Christ's 
satisfaction belong to them, as " he took not on 
him the nature of angels, but he took on him the 
seed of Abraham," Heb. 2 : 16; neither will any 
other price be sufficient for their redemption. 
Therefore they remain " reserved in everlasting 
chains under darkness," Jude 6; and although 
they now suffer punishment, yet on the last day 
they will have to endure sufferings far more se- 

Matt. 8 : 29. What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of 
God? art thou come hither to torment us before our time ? 

Matt. 25 : 41. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, pre- 
pared for the devil and his angels. 

2 Pet. 2 : 4. See answer. Quest. 11. 





1. What is the image of God in which man was 
originally created f 

Original righteousness has respect not only to 
the second table of the Decalogue, but also to the 
first, which enjoins upon us the fear of God, and 
confidence and love towards him. Therefore man^ 
as created in this image of God, had not only a 
uniform disposition of the attributes of the body, 
but also a surer knowledge of God, and fear and 
confidence in Him, or undoubted rectitude, the 
power of exercising these affections, and likewise 
immortality, and dominion over God's creatures. 
{Apologg, Art. ii, 14-18.) 

2. Prove this from the Holy Scripture. 
Scripture bears witness to this when it says, 

that man was created in the image and likeness 
of God. Gen. 1 : 26, 27. So also Paul in Eph. 
4 : 24, and Col. 3 : 10, shows that this image of 
God is the knowledge of God, righteousness and 

Eph. 4 : 24. And that ye put on the new man which after God is 
created in righteousness and true holiness {margin, holiness of truth). 
Col. 3:10. And have put on the new man which is renewed in knowl- 
edge, after the image of him that created him. 

3. Did this image of God remain in man after the 
fall ? 

It did not. For original sin, which all men 


have derived from the fall of the first parents, is 
a corruption of nature so deep and evil, that it 
surpasses all human comprehension. For which 
reason, the doctrines of the scholastics, which 
taught that since Adam's fall our human powers 
have remained uninjured and untainted, are sim- 
ply errors and obscurations contrary to this ar- 

Human reason can neither discover, nor conceive of the extent of 
this hereditary evil, but as the Smalcald Articles declare, we must 
learn and believe it from the testimony of the Holy Scriptures. 
{^orm of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. i, 8.) 

4. How do you prove this f 

First. The fall of Adam was followed imme- 
diately by a total want or deprivation of that 
original righteousness, possessed by him in Para- 
dise, according to which man was created in 
truth, righteousness, and holiness. 

Secondly. The fall was likewise followed by im- 
potence and insensibility in spiritual things, as 
will more clearly appear when we consider the 
articles treating of original sin and the free will. 

5. Can the image of God which has been lost, be 
restored in man ? 

Human nature, which by this evil has become 
perverted, and entirely corrupted, can be healed 
in no other manner than by the Holy Spirit's 
work in regeneration and renewal, l^evertheless 
this work is only begun 'in us during this life; 
not until the life to come, will it be completed 
and brought to perfection. [Form of Concord^ Sol. 
Lee, Art. i.) 




1. Has God any care or providence over those ob- 
jects which he has created ? 

That there is a Divine Providence, and that 
God takes care of those objects which he has 
created, is evident, _y??'5^, from Scripture. 

Jer. 10 : 23. The way of man is not in himself; it is not in man 
that walketh to direct his steps. 

John 5 : 17. My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. 
Acts 17 : 25. He giveth to all life, and breath and all things. 
Heb. 1 : 3. Upholding all things by the word of his power. 

Secondly. This is evident also from the wonder- 
ful preservation of all created objects ; but espe- 
cially in the preservation of the church, and the 
pious, from the fury of the world and Satan. 

2. What is the providence of God ? 
Providence is tliat work of God, by which he 

not only knows all things which happen or are 
carried on, the good as well as the evil; but also 
sustains and preserves those objects which he has 
created, and especially furthers the salvation of 
those who are to be saved; commands, assists and 
promotes the good deeds of men ; and prevents 
and rebukes their wicked deeds, or so restrains, 
or permits them, as in the end, contrary to the 
wish of the devil and the wicked, to use their 
deeds to promote his glory and the salvation of 
his elect. (Hunnius.) 


3. Why do you say that Providence is not mere 
knowledge ? 

In order to distinguish providence from pre- 
science. For prescience embraces only the knowl- 
edge of the future, and does not express the cause 
of that which is foreknown. But Providence, in 
addition to knowledge, embraces likewise an ef- 
fective care, disposition, and ordination of future 

4. Has divine Providence certain grades f 
Three grades are usually assigned to it; the 

first of which is called general or universal Provi- 
dence, because it is generally considered as occu- 
pied with that upholding of created objects, by 
which God preserves and sustains the order of 
nature, or its mode of action, such as the regular 
motion of the heavenly bodies, the change of 
seasons, the continued flow of streams, the fer- 
tility of the earth and of all living creatures, and 
other objects of like character. 

Another grade called special, is that by which 
all creatures obey the commands and wishes of 

The third, called peculiar, is occupied only with 
the elect ; and its consideration belongs to the ar- 
ticle which treats of predestination. 

5. In what ways does God by his providence concur 
in the deeds of all men ? 

Especially in three ways. For first, God sus- 
tains the nature which acts ; without this susten- 
tation it would not only be unable to act, but 


could not exist even for a moment. "For in 
him we live and move and have our being." Acts 
17 : 28. 

Secondly. He grants motion,, or the power of act- 
ing, by aiFording the sources of actions and or- 
gans for their performance, such as the mind, the 
will, and the other powers of the soul, and the 
members of the body. 

Lastly. God concurs by directing the deeds of 
men, whatever their character may be, to certain 
good, useful, and salutary ends. 

6. But must not God be regarded the cause of sin, 
when he grants the power of motion to those who per- 
form wicked deeds ? 

By no means. For, in the first place, there is 
no conflict between these two things : that a being 
has been created and sustained by God, and that 
the wicked will of the devil and of man is the 
cause of sin. Then, there is also a very great 
difference between a motion in itself, and that 
sin which adheres to it. For a man's soul is un- 
doubtedly the immediate cause of his ability to ex- 
tend his hand and grasp objects with it; but the 
remote and first cause is God himself, who created 
and fitted the soul for performing such actions by 
means of the organs of the body. But when a 
thief extends his hand towards a forbidden ob- 
ject, the impropriety of this motion is not to be 
ascribed to God, but to the perverted will of the 

7. But as Scripture in various places says that God 


hardens, blinds, hands over to a reprobate mind, must 
not God, still in some manner be considered as the 
cause of sin ? 

By no means. For in these and similar pas- 
sages, God is introduced to us, not as the author 
and cause of sin, but as a just judge, who thus 
punishes persistent contumacy by withdrawing 
grace and the Holy Spirit from such a man, 
and leaving him to the power of Satan and his 
own will. In this manner the will of God con- 
curs, not indeed in the sin itself, but in the end 
to which he directs the sin, as is clearly proved 
by the history of Pharaoh. 

8. How are those passages of Scripture to be un- 
derstood which declare not only that God, but also the 
devil hardens and blinds men, and even that man har- 
dens and blinds himself? 

The act of hardening is ascribed to God, the 
devil, and man, evidently in different ways. For 
God hardens, not by bestowing wickedness, but 
partly by witholding his grace and mercy ; and 
partly by permitting men to become subject to 
the power of Satan and his own will. This he 
does according to his just judgment, thus punish- 
ing the persistent contumacy of man. 

2 Thess. 2 : 10, 11, 12. And with all deceivableness of unrighteous- 
ness in them that perish ; because they received not the love of the 
truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send 
upon them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie : that they 
all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in 


9. How is the devil said to harden ? 

The devil hardens and blinds, by urging, and 
persuading men to sin, and by affording occasion 
for sinning. 

1 Chron. 21 : 1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked 
David to number Israel. 

10. How is man said to harden himself? 

By freely and eagerly obeying his own desires 
and the suggestions of Satan, and voluntarily 
turning away from God. Thus the devil suggests ; 
man consents ; God deserts. 


1. Give a generic definition of sin. 

The Epistle of John gives us a concise defini- 
tion : " Sin is whatever is contrary to the law of God; " 
or as Melanchthon has defined it : Sin is a defect, 
inclination, or action, conflicting with the law 
of God, offensive to God, condemned by him, and 
causing those in whom it is found, unless for- 
given, to become subjects of eternal wrath and 
punishment. {Melanchthon' s Loci.) 

2. Who is the cause of sin ? 

Not God. Ps. 5 : 4. But partly the devil, who 
both sinned himself, and enticed our first parents 

OF SIN. 61 

to sin. John 8 : 4. Partly also men themselves 
who obey the wicked desires and suggestions of 
their flesh. Rom. 5 : 12. 

Ps. 5 : 4. Thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness. 

John 8 : 44. Ye are of your father the devil, who is a liar, and the 
father of it. 

Rom. 5 : 12. By one man sin entered into the world, and death by 
sin. (Melnnchthon- s Loci.) 

Concerning the cause of sin, they teach that although God creates 
and preserves nature, yet that the cause of sin is the will of the 
wicked, i. e., of the devil and ungodly men, which without the aid of 
God turns itself from him. as Christ says, John 8, "When he speak- 
eth a lie he speaketh it of himself." {Augsburg Confession, Art. six.) 

3. How many kinds of sin are there ? 

There are various distinctions made between 
sins. The principal divisions are into 1, original 
and actual ; 2, into mortal and venial. Mortal 
sins are subdivided into sins against conscience, 
one of which has respect to the Son of man, and 
another to the Holy Ghost. 

4. What is original sin ? 

Original sin is a natural, contagious disease and 
imperfection, with which all men are born, not 
only causing us to be destitute of the fear of God, 
and of confidence in him, and likewise through 
wicked desires to be entirely depraved, but also 
making us subjects of eternal condemnation, un- 
less we be born again. 

They likewise teach, that since the fall of Adam, all meii born after 
the course of nature, are born with sin, i. e., without the fear of God, 
without confidence in God, and with concupiscence, and that this 
disease or fault of origin is truly sin, condemning, and bringing now 
also eternal death upon those who are not born again by baptism and 
the Holy Spirit. They condemn the Pelagians and others who say 
that the fault of origin is not sin, and who, in order to diminish the 


glory of the merit and benefits of Christ, contend that man can be 
justified before God by the strength of his own reason. {Augsburg 
Confession, Art. ii.) 

Or, original sin consists not only in a total want 
or deficiency of all good in spiritual and divine 
things, but also in the substitution for the divine 
image of an inner, deep, wicked, inscrutable, and 
irrepressible corruption of the whole nature, and 
all its powers, especially of the higher and nobler 
faculties of the soul, affecting mind, understand- 
ing, heart, and will. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. i, 11.) 

5. Prove the existence of original sin. 

Gen. 6:5. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in 
the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart 
was only evil continually. 

Gen. 8 : 21. The imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. 

Ps. 51 : 5. Behold I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mo- 
ther conceive me. 

Job 14 ; 4. "Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Not 

Job 15 : 14, 15. What is man, that he should be clean? or he that 
is born of woman, that he should be righteous? Behold, he putteth 
no trust in his saints ; yea, the heavens are not clean in his sight. 

John .3 : 6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. 

Rom. 8 : 7. The carnal mind is enmity against God. 

Rom. 5 : 12 (see above, Q. 2). 

Eph. 2 : 3. We are by nature the ehilden of wrath. 

Original sin is not any fault committed in act, but it closely inheres 
fixed to man's very nature, substance, and essence. Even if no evil 
thought had ever arisen in the heart of corrupt man, if no idle word 
had been sjwken, nor wicked deed had been committed ; yet the nature 
has been corrui^ted by original sin, which is innate in us by reason of 
our vicious descent, and is the spring of all other actual sins, such 
as evil thoughts, words, and deeds, as it is written, Matt. 15 : 19, Out 
of the heart proceed evil thoughts ; and at other places, Gen. 6:5; 
8 : 21, Every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil 
continually. (Form of Concord, Ejpitome, Art. i, 21.) 

OF SIN. 63 

First. This hereditary evil is guilt ; and hence it is that on account 
of the disobedience of Adam and Eve, we all are at enmity with God, 
and are by nature the children of wrath, as the Apostle testifies in 
Eom. 5 : 12, sqq., and Eph. 2 : 3. Secondly. It is a total want, defi- 
ciency and privation of original righteousness or the image of God, 
according to which at the beginning, man was created in truth, right- 
eousness, and holiness ; and, likewise, an impotency, inaptitude, and 
dulness, by which man is rendered entirely unfit for all divine and 
spiritual things. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. i.) 

6. Is this sin therefore propagated in all men? 

It is. For since tlie fall of Adam, all men born 
naturally, are born with sin, L e., without the fear 
of God, without confidence in God, and with con- 
cupiscence. On this account all men hate God, and 
are by nature the children of wrath. [Augsburg 
Confession, Art. ii; Forjn of Concord, Epitome.) 

7. What punishments follow this sin ? 
Temporal and eternal death, and, in addition, 

other bodily, spiritual, temporal and eternal calam- 
ities and miseries, as well as subjection to the 
power and dominion of Satan, into whose griev- 
ous service man has been delivered because of 
sin. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. i, 13.) 

8. What errors contrary to this article must we 
shun ? 

■ Two especially. The former of which is that 
of the Pelagians, and of the Papists, who, to a 
certain extent, hold to the same opinions. The 
latter error is that which formerly was held by the 
Manicheans, and more recently by the Flaccians. 

9. Mention the errors of the Pelagians. 

First. They imagine that original sin' is only a 
fault, which, without any corruption whatever of 


our own nature, has been contracted from the 
transgression of another. 

Secondly. That wicked desires are not sin ; but 
only certain conditions or essential properties of 
nature with which we have been created. 

Thirdly. That this defect and hereditary evil is 
not in the sight of God properly and truly such a 
sin, as will cause the destruction of him who is 
not freed by Christ. 

Fourthly. That even since the fall, our nature 
is uninjured, and, indeed, especially in spiritual 
things, it is still entirely good and pure, and in 
those things pertaining to its own nature, i. e., in 
its own natural strength and power, it is perfect 
and unimpaired. 

Fifthly. That original sin is only something ex- 
ternal, of almost as little account as a mole or 
superj&cial stain ; or that it is only a corruption of 
accidental properties. 

Sixthly. That original sin is not a defect, or 
deprivation, or withdrawal, but only an external 
hindrance of spiritual power for good, just as if a 
loadstone were anointed with syrup, in which case 
its natural strength would not be destroyed, but 
only weakened. 

Seventhly. That on account of the fall of the 
race, our nature is indeed very much weakened 
and impaired; yet it has not utterly lost all its 
goodness; but man, from his natural birth, has 
still some good left, minute, small and weak 
though this may be, viz., the capacity, fitness, 

OF SIN. ^ 65 

ability, power and strength to begin, to work, 
or to co-operate in spiritual things. [Forra of 
Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. i, 17-23.) 

10. Prove that wicked desire [concupiscence) is sin? 
The Papists, at the time of the presentation of 

the Augsburg Confession, in opposition to Luther, 
contended that wicked desire was not sin, but 
only a punishment. But Luther, on the other 
hand, defended his position that it was sin; and, 
in so doing, he was right. For Paul says, that 
he would not have known that lust Avas sin, 
except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. 
Rom. 7 : 7. Likewise, "I see another law in my 
members warring against the law of my mind, 
bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which 
is in my members." {Apology, Art. ii, 38, 39.) 

11. Is the position of the Papists therefore correct 
when they contend that ivicked desire is an incitement 
possessing no moral character ? 

By no means. For who could ever say that 
that has no moral character, which, even though 
it do not complete its work by obtaining the 
entire consent of the will, yet leads us to doubt 
concerning the anger and the grace of God, to 
be displeased because God does not immediately 
remove our afflictions, to be filled with wrath, 
lust, desire of glory, riches, etc. ? [Apology, Art. 
ii, 42.) 

12. What are the errors of the second class of 
errorists, the ancient and the modern Manicheans ? 



The errors of the former Manicheans concern- 
ing original sin were as follows : 

First. In the beginning, the nature of man was 
indeed created by God pure and good ; but now, 
' since the fall, original sin from without has been 
infused by Satan into our nature, and so mixed 
with it that it has become essential to it, just as 
poison may be mingled with wine. 

Secondly. That it is not the corrupt man him- 
self that sins, but something else existing in him, 
which is foreign to his nature; and that God, by 
his law, does not accuse and condemn our nature 
itself, but only original sin. [Form of Concord, 
Sol. Dec, Art. ii, 26.) 

13. It has been stated thai the doctrine of the Flac- 
cians concerning original sin is nearly allied to that of 
the Manicheans ; what therefore is it ? 

The Flaccians contend that original sin, prop- 
erly speaking, and without making the least dis- 
tinction, is the very substance, nature and essence 
of corrupt man ; so that, since the fall, between 
the corrupted nature considered in itself, and 
original sin, there is no longer any difierence, 
nor can any distinction be conceived; or, at least 
in thought, original sin cannot be separated from 
our nature itself. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. 
ii, 19.) 

14. Can you produce arguments by which to refute 
the p>osition of the Flaccians ? 

Yes ; and that too from the chief articles of 
Christian faith, namely, the articles concerning 

OF SIN. 67 

creation, the incarnation of the Son of God, re- 

demption, sanctification, resurrection, etc. [Form 

of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. i.) 

15. How do you prove this from the article concern- 
ing creatio7i ? 

God created human nature not only previous 
to the fall, but, even since the fall, he creates, 
preserves, and sustains the same. 

Deut. 32 : 6. Is he not thy father that hath bought thee ? hath he 
not made thee ? 

Job 10 : 8. Thine hands have made me and fashioned me. 
Acts 17 : 28. In him we live, and move, and have our being. 

Eut God is not the creator and preserver of 
sin ; therefore original sin is not the very nature 
of man, but is something distinct from it. [Form 
of Concord, ih., 34.) 

16. Prove this also from the article concerning the 
incarnation of the Son of God. 

The Son of God assumed our very human 
nature, but he did not assume original sin ; so 
that in all things, except sin, he became like us 
his brethren. Heb. 2 : 17. [Form of Concord, ib., 43.) 

Therefore human nature, even since the fall, 
and original sin, are not one and the same thing, 
but are to be carefully distinguished. 

17. Is the same evident also from the article con- 
cerning redemjjtion ? 

It is. For Christ redeemed that which he as- 
sumed. But he did not redeem original sin ; and 
therefore he did not assume original sin. Hence 
it is necessary to make a great difference between 


our nature, which Christ assumed and redeemed, 
and original sin. [Form of Concord, ib., 43.) 

18. Can this be inferred in the same manner from 
the article concerning sanctification ? 

Yes. For God purifies, cleanses, sanctifies, and 
saves, not original sin, but man or human nature. 
(Form of Concord.) 

Therefore original sin cannot be man himself, 
unless by a wicked absurdity, too shocking to be 
heard, some one would wish with these more re- 
cent Manicheans to afiirm that original sin is bap- 
tized in the name of the Holy Trinity, sanctified, 
and finally saved. {Form of Concord, ib., 45.) 

19. Show this also from the article concerning the 

On the last day, the substance of this our flesh, 
which we now bear, will rise again, cleansed, how- 
ever, from sin; and in eternal life we will possess 
and retain the very soul which we now have, but 
it will not be contaminated by sin. Job 19 : 26. 
In my flesh I shall see God. [Form of Concord^ 

Now, if there be no diflerence between our cor- 
rupt nature and original sin, it would follow that: 
1. Either this flesh will not rise again on the last 
day ; or, 2. Sin will rise again on the last day, 
and exist and remain in the elect throughout 
eternal life; both of which suppositions directly 
contradict the article concerning the resurrection. 
[Form of Concord, ib., 47.) 

OF SIN. 69 

20. As original sin is something distinct from human 
nature^ is it a substance or an accident? 

This is by no means an unimportant question, 
inasmuch as everything which is, is either a sub- 
stance or an accident, not existing by itself, but 
in a substance, from which it is etitirely distinct. 
Now, it is clearly evident to all whose minds are 
not disordered, that sin is not anything subsisting 
by itself, but only inhering in man in such a man- 
ner as to be subject to change. Who, therefore, 
can hesitate to reply frankly, directly, and openly, 
that original sin is not a substance, but an accident ? 
{Form of Concord, ib., 56.) 

21. What is actual sin ? 

Actual sin is every action, whether internal or 
external, which conflicts with the law of God; as 
in the mind, Aoxihis, concerning God; in the will and 
heart, the flames of wicked desires; a7id in the 
members, all motions and actions contrary to the 
Divine law. [Blelanchthon's Loci.) 

22. What is a mortal sin ? 

In those who have not been born again, every 
sin is mortal, whether it be original or actual, in- 
ternal or external. But in those who have been 
born again, a mortal sin is either a fundamental 
error, or an internal action, contrary to the law 
of God, committed against conscience, and de- 
priving its subject of the grace of God, faith, and 
the Holy Ghost, (llelanchihon.) 

23. What is a venial sin? 

By its own nature, and in itself considered, no 


sin whatever is venial ; but sin becomes, and ia 
regarded as such, through and on account of Christ. 

A venial sin, therefore, is a fall or action of the 
regenerate, which conflicts with the law of God, 
but does not cause the loss of grace, the Holy 
Ghost, and faith ; for those who have been born 
again, in their spirit strive that they may not be 
led astray contrary to conscience, and they grieve 
over their corruption, and believe that for the sake 
of their Mediator, God regards them with favor, 
and gratuitously forgives them all their sins, 
through and on account of Christ. 

24. What is a sin contrary to conscience ? 

It is a sin committed by one, who, although 
warned by conscience, knowingly and willingly 
perpetrates evil. 

25. What is a mortal sin committed against the 
Son of man ? 

It is either an attack arising from ignorance, 
made against Gospel truth, by one who has never 
been a confessor of this truth ; or, it is a denial 
of the same, unaccompanied, however, by any 
hostile blasphemy, made by one who has con- 
fessed the truth, and who has been led into this 
by infirmity, or the fear of danger. 

■ 26. What is a mortal sin against the Holy Ghost? 

It is a voluntary apostasy or denial of either a 

portion or the whole of Gospel truth, made by 

one who has acknowledged his faith in it, and 

OF SIN. 71 

who, with deliberate purpose, contrary to the tes- 
timony of his own heart and 'conscience, hostilely 
attacks and despises the ministry of the Holy 
Ghost, or the means of grace. 

27. Why is it said that this sin against the Holy 
Crhost is unpardonable ? 

Not, indeed, because the impossibility of its 
forgiveness is such, that the greatness of its guilt 
exceeds and surpasses the mercy of God and the 
merit of Christ. 

Rom. 5 : 20. Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. 

1 John 1 : 7. The blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanseth us from 
all sin. 

1 John 2 : 2. Christ is the propitiation for our sins ; and not for ours 
only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 

28. In lohat sense therefore is this sin said to be 

This sin is never indeed forgiven, but this is 
the fault of the sinner; because, 1. He volunta- 
rily forsakes Christ, without whom there is no 
sacrifice for sin ; 2. He persistently neglects, 
despises, and, as it were, treads under his feet, 
the instruments or means of grace, without which 
no one can obtain forgiveness of sins; 3, and 
lastly. This sin is connected with final harden- 
ing of the heart, so that with confirmed pur- 
pose, the sinner at length knowingly, willingly 
and recklessly proceeds to attack and blaspheme 
that truth which he had at one time acknowl- 


29. Is sin found in those who have become the sub- 
jects of the scmctifi/ivg influences of the Spirit? 

Paul himself makes a distinctiou between the 
sins of the reo;enerate and the unreojenerate. 
Rom. 8 : 13. If ye live after the flesh, ye shall 
die ; but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the 
deeds of the body, ye shall live. Here he con- 
fesses that in the regenerate there are deeds of 
the body, i. e., many vicious inclinations, doubts, 
securities, distrusts, wandering presumptions, and 
wicked atfections ; but also that these deeds con- 
flict with the spirit, i. e., with spiritual motions, 
such as calling upon God, faith, patience, chas- 
tity, and other exercises of piety. [Melanchthon's 



1. Should we consider the human will in one aspect 
only ? 

No. For its consideration comprehends a treat- 
ment of four states : the first, before the fall ; 
the second, since the fall; the third, after regener- 
ation ; the fourth, after the resurrection of the 
body. (Form, of Concord, Epitome, Art. ii, 1.) 

2. In what condition did the free will exist prior to 
the fall? 

This is stated in Article YI, which treats of the 


image of God. l^ot the least part of this image 
was man's ability to sin, or refrain from sin, ac- 
cording to his pleasure. 

3. Since the fall is there any liberty remaining to the 
hamxni will ? 

"* Some. For it has the ability to perform that 
which,, according to civil law, is right, and to 
choose those things which are subject to reason. 
In a certain way, it can speak of God, can pre- 
sent an external worship of him, can obey magis- 
trates and parents, and can refrain from murder, 
adultery, theft, etc. For, as human nature re- 
tains reason and judgment concerning things 
subject to sense, there remains also, to some ex- 
tent, a choice among these objects, and the liberty 
and power to perform what, according to civil 
law, is right. {Augsburg Confession and Apology, 
Art. xviii.) 

4. Why do you say only " to some extent " ? 
Because the power of wicked desire is so great, 

that men obey these evil affections more frequently 
than a correct judgment ; and the devil, who works 
in the wicked, does not cease to incite this weak 
nature to various sins. These are the reasons on 
account of which righteousness, judged even by 
civil law, is so rare among men. 

5. Since the fall has man any liberty in spiritual 
things ? 

He has not. For since the fall man has lost 
all power, without the aid of the Holy Ghost, to 
fulfil the righteousness of God, or spiritual right- 



eousness. Because " the natural man receivetli 
not the things of the Spirit of God;" but this 
righteousness is fulfilled when the Holy Ghost, 
through the word, is begotten in the heart. {Augs- 
burg Confession, Art. xviii.) 

6. But cannot man prior to conversion to some ex- 
tent, even though feebly, prepare himself for grace, and 
receive the word of God, or assent to it f 

He cannot. For Scripture declares that the 
mind, heart and will of the unregenerate man, in 
spiritual and divine things, cannot in any manner, 
from their own natural strength, understand, be- 
V\Jieve, embrace, think, will, begin, accomplish, 
perform, work, or co-operate. 

In the Smaller Catechism of Dr. Luther, it is thus written : "I be- 
lieve that I cannot by my own reason or strength believe in Jesus Christ 
my Lord or come to him ; but the Holy Ghost hath called me through 
the Gospel, enlightened me by his gifts, and sanctified and preserved 
me in the true faith ; in like manner as he calls, gathers, enlightens, 
and sanctifies the whole Christian church on earth, and preserves it 
in union with Jesus Christ in the one true faith." Likewis" In the 
explanation of the second petition of the Lord's Prayer we find these 
words: "When is this effected" (namely, that the kingdom of God 
should come to us), the reply is : " When our Heavenly Father gives 
us his Holy Spirit, so that by his grace, we believe his holy Word, 
and live a godly life," etc. These passages afiirm that we cannot 
by our own strength come to Christ, but that God gives us his Holy 
Spirit, by whom we are enlightened, sanctified, and thus through 
faith led to Christ, and preserved in him. Here neither our will nor 
our co-operation is mentioned. 

To these words we add those in which Dr. Luther declared his de- 
sign to remain steadfast in this doctrine to the end. They occur in 
his Larger Confession concerning the Lord's Supper, and are as fol- 
lows : " I reject and condemn as pure errors all doctrines whieh.extol 
-^ our free will ; inasmuch as they directly conflict with the aid and 
grace of the Holy Spirit. For since without Christ, death and sin 
reign over us, and the devil is our God and prince, there cannot be any 


power or virtue, wisdom or understanding, by which we can prepare 
ourselves for righteousness or life, or seek after it ; but it is clearly 
evident that we are blinded captives and slaves of sin and the devil, 
and that we perform and think only such things as are pleasing to 
them, and contrary to God and his commandments." In these words, 
Dr. Luther, of sainted memory, declares that our free will possesses 
no power whatever in virtue of which man can prepare himself for 
righteousness or seek after it. But on the other hand he teaches that 
man is blinded, and as a captive only can obey the will of Satan, and 
do those things which displease God. Hence we should not imagine 
any co-operation of our will in conversion. For it is necessary that 
man should be divinely drawn, and be born again of God : otherwise 
there is no thought in our hearts which inclines itself to embrace the 

Hence that doctrine is incorrect which teaches that the unregen- 
erate man has power sufficient to desire to embrace the Gospel, and be 
consoled thereby, and that in this manner the human will in its natu- 
ral condition can to a certain extent co-operate in conversion. {Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. ii, 40.) 

7. Can you prove this from. Scripture f 

Yes. For it testifies that in reference to good, 
man is entirely corrupt and dead, so that since the 
fall, in his uuregenerate nature there is not the 
least particle of strength left, by which he of his 
own accord can prepare himself for the grace of 
God, or can apprehend that grace as offered him, 
or from and through himself become capable of 
this grace, or apply himself to it. I^for can he, 
either entirely or in the least degree by his own 
strength, confer, act, work or co-operate in any- 
thing towards his conversion. But he is the ser- 
vant of sin, and slave of Satan, by whom he is 
led about. 

8. Bi/ lohat passages is this declared ? 
Concerning the mind or intellect of man, we 

have the following clear testimonies : 


1 Cor. 2 : 14. The natural manreceiveth not the things of the Spirit 
of God : for they are foolishness unto him : neither can he know them, 
because they are spiritually discerned. 

Eph. 4 : 17, 18. They walk (i. e., unregenerate men) in the vanity 
of their mind, having the understanding darkened, being alienated 
from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because 
of the blindness of their heart. 

Matt. 13 : 13. They seeing, see not j and hearing, they hear not; 
neither do they understand. 

Rom. 3 : 12. They are all gone out of the way, they are together 
become unprofitable : there is none that doeth good, no, not one. 

Eph. 5:8. Ye were sometime darkness, but now are ye light in 
the Lord. 

Acts 26 : 18. To turn them from darkness to light. 

John 1 : 5. The light shineth in darkness. 

Eph. 2: 1. "Who were" (not weak, not feeble, not sick, but) 
"dead in sins." 

2 Cor. 3 : 5. Not that we are suflBcient of ourselves, to think any- 
thing as of ourselves ; but our sufficiency is of God. 

Rom. 8 : 7. The carnal mind is enmity against God. {Form of Con- 
cord, Sol. Dec, Art. ii, 9-11.) 

9. JProve the same concerning the human heart or 

First. This is evident from the passages already 
adduced. For how can the unregenerate man 
will anything in spiritual matters, when he cannot 
understand what these spiritual matters are. 

Secondly. Scripture distinctly declares that the 
will of the unregenerate man, in divine things, is 
deeply depraved, and is turned not only from God, 
but also against God, and toward every evil thing. 

Gen. 6 : 5. God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the 
earth, and that every imagination of his thoughts was only evil con- 

Gen. 8 : 22. The imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. 

Jer. 17 : 9. The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately 
wicked : who can know it ? 

Gal. 5 : 17. The flesh lusteth against the Spirit. 


Rom. 8 : 7. The carnal mind is enmity against God. 

Rom. 7 : 14. We know that the law is spiritual : but I am carnal, 
sold under sin. Ver. 22, 23. I delight in the law of God, after the 
inward man ; but I see another law in my members warring against 
the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin 
which is in my members. {Form of Cojicord, ii, 17.) 

10. If this be the condition of the unregenerate man, 
does it not seem as if he could do no more towards his 
own conversion than a stone or a block ? 

The Holy Scriptures in fact compare the heart 
of the unregenerate to a hard stone, which does not 
yield to the touch, but resists ; likewise to a rough 
block; and even sometimes to a fierce wild beast: 
but comparisons of this kind must be understood 
in their orthodox sense. {Form of Concord, ib., ii, 
19. From Luther.) 

11. What is the orthodox sense ? 

This sense is not, — that since the fall man has 
ceased to be a rational creature ; or, that he is 
converted to God, without hearing or meditating 
upon the divine word; or, that in external and 
civil matters he cannot understand or freely do, 
or omit to do, that which is right or wrong ; but, 
that in spiritual and divine things, of his own 
strength, he cannot accomplish anything more 
toward his conversion than a block or a stone ; 
yea, that on account of his resistance he has less 
power than these objects. {Fortn of Concord, ib., 
ii, 24.) 

12. Is there therefore no aptitude whatever for con- 
version to be ascribed to man in his iinregenerate state ? 

With Luther we make a distinction between 


aptitude, or active capacity, and passive capacity. 
The former we declare that the unregenerate 
and unconverted man does not possess ; but the 
latter (passive) we grant to him. (Form of Con- 
cord, lb., ii, 23.) 

13. What reason have you for such a distinction f 
Because God, by a most severe, but, at the 

same time, by a most just judgment, utterly cast 
away for all eternity the wicked fallen spirits; 
yet, in his unparalleled pity, he wished that the 
deeply miserable nature of fallen man might be- 
come capable of conversion, the grace of God, 
and eternal life, and might obtain the same ; not, 
indeed, by any natural, active or effective fit- 
ness, aptitude or capacity of its own, but from 
pure grace, through the merciful and effectual 
working of the Holy Ghost. Therefore passive 
capacity is very correctly ascribed to unregen- 
erate man. 

14. If man in his own strength does nothing towards 
his own conversion, who therefore accomplishes it? 

The Holy Scriptures ascribe the conversion of 
unregenerate man, faith in Christ, regeneration, 
renewal, and all those things which belong to the 
effectual beginning and completion of the same, 
in no manner to the human powers of the natural 
free will ; but they refer it alone, entirely, and 
wholly, to the divine operation of the Holy Ghost. 
(Form of Concord, ib.,\\, 25.) 

15. Establish this from Scripture? 

Phil. 2 : 13. It is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do. 


Acts 5 : 31. A Prince and Saviour for to give repentance to Israel. 

2 Tim. 2 : 25. If God, peradventure, will give them repentance. 

Phil. 1 : 29. For unto you it is given in behalf of Christ, not only 
to believe on him. 

Eph. 2 : 8. By grace are ye saved, through faith ; and that not of 
yourselves : it is the gift of God. 

John 6 : 29. This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom 
he hath sent. 

Matt. 13 : 11. It is given unto you to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of heaven. 

Deut. 29 : 4. The Lord hath not given you an heart to perceive, 
and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day. 

The Hoi}' Ghost is a spirit of regeneration and 
renewal : 

Titus 3 : 5, 6. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, 
but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regenera- 
tion, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. 

Ezek. 11 : 19. I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit 
within you ; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and 
will give them an heart of flesh. 

Ezek. 36 : 26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will 
I put within you. 

Deut. 30 : 6. And the Lord thy God will circumcise thy heart, and 
the heart of all thy seed, to love the Lord tby God. 

Ps. 51 : 10. Create in me a clean heart, God ; and renew a right 
spirit within me. 

Eph. 2:10. We are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto 
good works. _ 

Jnmes 1 : 17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, 
and Cometh down from the Father of lights. 

John 6 : 44. No man can come to me, except the Father which 
hath sent me draw him. 

Matt. 11 ; 27. Neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, 
and he to whomsoever the Son shall reveal him. 

1 Cor. 12 : 3. No man can say that Jesus is the Lord but by the 
Holy Ghost. 

John 15 : 5. Without me ye can do nothing. 

2 Cor. 3 : 5. Our sufficiency is of God. 

1 Cor. 4 : 7. What hast thou, which thou didst not receive? Now, 
if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not re- 
ceived it ? 


16. Does the Holy Ghost accomplish the work of 
conversion, by the use of means, or without them ? 

By the use of means. For it has seemed good 
to God to call to eternal salvation, to draw to 
himself, to convert, regenerate and sanctify men 
in no other way than through his word, whether 
preached or read, and through the proper use of 
the sacraments. [Form of Concord, ib., ii, 50.) 

17. Show this from Scripture. 

1 Cor. 1 : 21. For after that in the wisdom of God the world hy wis- 
dom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to 
save them that believe. 

Rom. 10 : 17. Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word. 

John 17 : 20. Neither pray I for these alone ; but for them also 
which shall believe on me through their word. 

Acts 10 : 6. He shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do. 

Matt. 17:5. The eternal Father said concerning his Son, "Hear 
ye him." 

18. Please to describe the entire mode or process by 
ivhich God converts men. 

Since the natural strength of man cannot con- 
fer any aid, nor bring any assistance whatever, for 
conversion, God, in his unspeakable goodness and 
mercy, goes before us, and provides for the proc- 
lamation of the Gospel, through which the Holy 
Ghost designs to accomplish in us the work of 
conversion and regeneration; and, through the 
preaching of this word, and meditation upon it, 
he enkindles faith; so that all these are gifts and 
operations of the Holy Ghost alone. {Form of 
Concord, ib.,\\, 71.) 

19. How therefore does the human will concur in the 
work of conversion ? 


It certainly does not concur, either as an effi- 
cient or as a co-operating cause, or as a cause 
without which the work would not be accom- 
plished. For which reason the doctrine concern- 
ing the three efficient causes is rejected. [Form 
of Concord, ib., ii, 90.) 

20. How then does it concur ? 

It concurs only as the subject to be converted, 
in which the Holy Ghost works conversion and 
regeneration ; towards which work the will of 
man does nothing, but only suffers God to work 
in it, until it is regenerated. {Form of Concord, ib., 
ii, 90.) 

21. To conclude, state how many causes of conver- 
sion there are. 

Not more than two : one, the efficient ^principal 
cause, the Holy Ghost; the other, the word of 
God, which is the instrument employed by the 
Holy Ghost in the work of conversion. The in- 
tellect and will of the unregenerate man, con- 
stitute only the subject of conversion. {Form of 
Concord, ib., ii, 90.) 

22. In conversion is the will therefore entirely pas- 
sive ? 

With Luther, we state that in conversion man's 
will is entirely passive, if those new notions be 
considered which the Holy Ghost without the 
will of man begins in the heart, and through 
which he effects conversion. But, after conver- 
sion, the renewed will is the instrument and 


organ of the Holy Ghost, so that it not only 
apprehends grace, but also co-operates in the 
succeeding acts of faith. [Form of Concord^ ib., 
u, 89.) 



1. How is the law of God divided ? 

Into three divisions, viz. : the ceremonial, the 
judicial or forensic, and the moral law. 

2. What is the Ceremonial Law f 

It is the external arrangement of sacrifices, and 
of the whole Levitical cultus, which served not 
only to distinguish the Jewish people from other 
nations, but also to foreshadow Christ and his 
benefits, and through faith truly to apply him to 
the elect and believing. 

3. Has the Ceremonial Law been abolished? and if 
so^ why ? 

It has been abolished: 

(1.) Because God himself established it only for 
a certain time, and for a certain nation, the Is- 
raelites, again and again in Exodus and Leviticus 
repeating these words : " Ye shall observe these 
things in yomr generations." 

(2.) Because the Ceremonial Law possessed only 
the type and shadow of Christ, who was to be 
born at some future time. Hence, since he has 


come in the flesh, these types and shadows have 
necessarily been abolished. 

Heb. 10:1. The law had a shadow of good things to come, and 
not the very image of these things (»'. e., of the body and blood of 

(3.) Because God himself promised a new cove- 

Jer. 31 : 31. Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make 
a new covenant with the house of Israel, and the house of Judah. 
And : In that he saith a new covenant, he hath made the first old, 
Heb. 8 : 13. {MelanchthoiV s Loci and Exame7i.) 

4. What is the Forensic or Judicial Law ? 

It is the political constitution, which prescribes 
the manner of observing judicial trials, and main- 
taining external discipline among the Israelitish 

5. Has this law also been abolished f 
It has : 

(1.) Because it was adapted only for a certain 
time and for a certain form of government, 
namely, the Jewish. 

(2.) Because the Jewish commonwealth was to 
continue only until the time of Christ. There- 
fore, this law could not be perpetual. 

Gen. 49 : 10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a law- 
giver from between his feet, until Shiloh come ; and unto him shall 
the gathering of the people be. 

(3.) Because the Gospel does not remove any 
political institutions, which are in any manner in 
accordance with the Divine will and justice. 

Matt. 22 : 21. Render therefore unto Csesar, the things which are 
Caesar's • and to God, the things that are God's. 


Rom. 13 : 1. Let every soul be subject unto the bigher powers. For 
there is no power but of God. 

6. What is the Moral Law or the Ten Command- 
ments ? 

The Moral Law is doctrine revealed to us by 
God, enjoining upon us what we ought to be, 
what we ought to do, and what to omit to do, re- 
quiring perfect obedience towards God, and de- 
claring his wrath against all those not affording 
such perfect obedience, and the eternal death with 
which he will punish them. {Melanchihon's Loci.) 

7. Save we not a knowledge of this law by nature ? 
Why then do you say that it is doctrine revealed to us 
by God? 

The Divine Law is indeed inscribed upon the 
hearts of men, so that human reason naturally 
has some knowledge of it; but, as Paul says, 
there is a veil upon the hearts of men, which 
means that the false impression has taken posses- 
sion of their minds, that external and civil works 
can satisfy the demands of the law. Therefore, 
there was a necessity for a new revelation, which 
through the ministry of Moses was made in the 
desert, by the giving of the Ten Commandments. 
{Form of Co%cord, Arts, v and vi; Apology, Art. iii.) 

Rom. 2 : 14, 15. For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do 
by nature the things contained in the law, these having not the law, 
are a law unto themselves ; which show the work of the- law written 
in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their 
thoughts the meanwhile accusing, or else excusing one another. 

8. What therefore do the Ten Commandments re- 
quire f 


TTot only external civil works, which a rational 
man can in some manner perform, but also other 
works placed far above the utmost power of rea- 
son, viz., to truly fear, love and call upon God. 
(Apologi/, Art. iii ; Form of Concord, Art. v.) 

9. Solo many uses has the Moral Law, and what 
are Ihey ? 

Generally speaking, the Diviire Law has three 
uses. One is political, that external discipline and 
decency may to a certain extent be preserved 
against lawless and reckless men. Another use 
is pedagogical, to lead sinners to a knowledge of 
sin. A third use is didactic, that ihose, who have 
been regenerated bj^ God's Spirit, and converted 
to the Lord, and in whom the veil of Moses has 
now been removed, may learn how to walk in true 
piety, and to have a certain fixed rule according to 
which they both can, and ought to conform their 
whole life. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. vi, 1.) 

10. What necessity is there of a law for those who 
are regenerate, inasmuch as they are so free, that even 
as the sun of itself without any compidsion performs 
its regular course, so they also of themselves by the im- 
pulse of the Holy Ghost, do that which God reqidres 
of them ? 

Although believers truly converted to God, and 
justified, are freed from the curse of the law, 
and hence both truly are free, and are correctly 
said to be so, yet they ought to exercise them- 
selves daily in the divine law. 



Ps. 1 : 2. His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth 
he meditate day and night. 

For the law of God is like an exceedingly bright 
mirror, in which the will of God, and those things 
which please him, are most clearly set before our 
eyes. {Form of Concord^ Sol. Dec.,vi, 4.) 

11. But has not the Law been framed for the right- 
eous ? 

Not indeed for the righteous, but for the un- 
righteous, as the Apostle testifies : yet this should 
not be understood as implying that the righteous 
should live without law. But this is the true and 
genuine meaning of the words of Paul : that the 
law cannot destroy by its curse, those who through 
Christ have been reconciled with God ; and that 
by its restraint it cannot become burdensome to 
the regenerate, inasmuch as they according to the 
inner man delight in the law of God, and of their 
own accord perform its works. (Form of Concord, 
lb., vi, 5.) 

12. But why have the regenerate need of the Law 
as an instructor ? 

Because the renewal and sanctification of their 
mind in this life is only begun, and not completed ; 
so that the old Adam with all his mental and 
physical strength alwaj's inheres in their nature. 
{Foryn of Concord^ ib., vi, 7.) 

13. Prove this from the Scriptures. 

The Apostle says concerning himself (and he 
surely had been born again) : I know that in me 
(that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing : for 


to will is present with me; but how to perform 
that which is good, I find not. For the good that 
I would, I do not ; but the evil, which I would 
not, that I do. ... I see another law in my 
members warring against the law of my mind, 
and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin. 
Rom. 7 ^18, 19, 23. 

So also in Gal. 5:17. The flesh lusteth against 
the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh : and 
these are contrary the one to the other ; so that 
ye cannot do the things that ye would. 

On this account the regenerate need not only 
the constant admonition, teaching, and threaten- 
ings of the law, but also its chastisements, so that 
their sloth may be removed, and they may obey 
the Holy Ghost, as it is written : It is good for 
me that I have been afflicted ; that I might learn 
thy statutes. Ps. 119 : 71. 

Also, 1 Cor. 9 : 27. I keep under my body, and 
bring it into subjection; lest that by any means 
when I have preached to others, I myself should 
be a castaway. So also, Heb. 12 : 8. If ye be 
without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, 
then are ye bastards and not sons. {Form of Con- 
cord, lb., viii, 9.) 

14. Can any other reason be assigned, on account of 
which the Law should be urged in the church and upon 
the regenerate ? 

Yes. For on account of the old Adam, who 
still firmly inheres in all their powers, it can 
easily happen that the regenerate by a pretext of 


private devotion in matters of religion can frame 
something, or can select for themselves forms of 
worship, not instituted by the word of God : or 
that they can easily imagine or persuade them- 
selves that their life and works are entirely pure 
and perfect. Hence the law not only by its warn- 
ings and threats, but also by its punishments and 
chastisements, forces the old Adam to obey the 
Spirit, and brings him into captivity to itself. 
Yea, just as in a mirror, it shows that all things 
in the regenerate, while they remain still in this life, 
are imperfect and impure, so that they must join 
in the confession of the Apostle : *' T know noth- 
ing by myself, yet am I not hereby justified." 1 
Cor. 4 : 4. {Form of Concord, Epitome, vi, 4 ; Sol. 
Dee., vi, 21.) 

15. But does not the Gospel afford this to the re- 
generate ? 

Yes, the Gospel afibrds this in part; but in a 
far different manner from the Law. For the Law 
indeed declares that it is the will and command 
of God, that we should walk in a new life, but it 
does not give us the power and ability by which 
we can begin and 3'ield this new obedience. But 
the Holy Ghost who is given, not, through the 
preaching of the law, but through the preaching 
of the Gospel, renews man's heart. {Form of Con- 
cord, Sol. Dec, vi, 11.) 

16. Does the Holy Ghost accomplish this by the use 
of means or without them ? 


By the use of means. For he uses the minis- 
try of the law for the purpose of thereby teaching 
the regenerate, and in the Ten Commandments 
showing them what is the will of God, and what 
is pleasing to him, so that they may know by 
what good works to fulfil those things in which 
" God had before prepared that they should walk." 
Eph. 2 : 10. [Form of Concord, ib., 12.) 

17. £>o the works of the Law and the works of the 
Spirit therefore differ? 

Greatly. But the distinction arises from the 
diversity of men who strive to live according to 
the law and will of God, some of whom are not 
as yet regenerated, but others are regenerated. 
{Form of Concord, ib., 16.) 

18. What relation do the works of the unregenerate 
sustain to the laio of God? 

An unregenerate man who lives to a certain 
extent in conformity with the law of God, and 
therefore performs the works of the law only be- 
cause they have been commanded, alibrds this 
obedience either from fear of punishment or hope 
of some reward. He, therefore, is still under the 
law as a slave, and his works, St. Paul properly 
calls, works of the law. {Form of Concord, ib., 16.) 

19. What relation do the works of the regenerate 
sustain to the law of God? 

When a man has been regenerated by the 
Hoi 3^ Ghost, and has been freed from the law, 
i. e., from the constraint of the law, and is led by 



the Spirit of God, he both lives according to the 
unchangeable will of God revealed in the law, 
and, so far as he has been regenerated, does all 
things with a free and ready spirit. Such works 
are not properly called works of the law, but 
works and fruits of the Spirit. For these are 
the men Avho are no longer under the law, but 
under grace. Rom. 6 : 14. {Form of Corieord, Sol. 
Dec, ib., 17.) 

20. Can the regenerate obey or fulfil the moral law, 
and thus be justified? 

That they cannot is very evident from what has 
already been said. For the good works of the 
regenerate in this life, on account of sin inhering 
in the flesh, are imperfect and impure. And 
although, according to the inner man, they per- 
form those actions which are pleasing to God ; 
yet they constantly and incessantly have to strive 
with the old Adam, who, like an ungovernable 
and obstinate animal, lusts against the Spirit, 
and therefore must be restrained not only by the 
teachings, exhortations and threa'tenings of the 
law, but also by its blows and punishments, so 
impossible is it to obey or fulfil the law. [Form 
of Concord, ib., 24.) 

21. In how many ways did Christ fulfil the moral 

Principally in four ways : 1. By explaining the 
true sense of the law. Matt. 5. 

2. By afibrding it perfect obedience. 


Rom. 5 : 19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sin- 
ners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. 

3. By taking upon himself the curse of the 

Gal. 3:13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us. 

4. By bestowing upon us his own righteous- 
ness, and that obedience which he afforded the 

2 Cor. 5 : 21. He hath made him to be sin for us -who knew no sin, 
that we might be the righteousness of God in him. 



1. What is the Gospel? 

The Gospel is doctrine divinely revealed and 
full of consolation, treating of the mercy of God, 
and the gratuitous remission of sins, through and 
on account of the merit of Christ apprehended 
by faith. 

The Gospel, properly so called, is doctrine, teaching what man, who 
is unable to satisfy God's law, and who on that account is condemned, 
ought to believe, namely, that Jesus Christ made expiation and satis- 
faction for all sins, and, without respect to any merit of the sinner, 
has obtained for him forgiveness, righteousness before God, and 
eternal life. 

But when the Law and Gospel, and so also when Moses as the 
teacher of the Law, and Christ as the teacher of the Gospel, are com- 
pared with each other, we believe, teach and confess that the Gospel 


is not a preaching of repentance, convicting of sin, but that properly 
it is nothing else than that joyful announcement and proclamation 
full of comfort, which does not convict or terrify, but, on the other 
hand, consoles consciences against the terrors of the law, bids them 
look to the merit of Christ alone, and by its sweet message concerning 
grace and the favor of God obtained through the merit of Christ, again 
restores them to peace. (Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. v, 5, 7.) 

Inasmuch as man has not satisfied God's law, but transgressed it, 
and his whole nature, with all his thoughts, speeches, and deeds, 
conflicts with its requirements, and hence he has become subject to 
the wrath of God, all temporal calamities, and eternal death, the 
Gospel, properly so called, teaches what this most miserable sinner 
ought to believe, in order to obtain the forgiveness of his sins before 
God ; namely, that the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, took upon 
him.'elf the curse of the law, and by his full satisfaction atoned for all 
our sins, in order that through him alone we might be reconciled with 
God, by faith obtain the forgiveness of sins, be freed from death, and 
all other punishments of sin, and be eternally saved. 

For whatever consoles fearful hearts, whatever offers favor and the 
grace of God to transgressors, is properly called the Gospel, the joy- 
ful message that the Lord God does not wish to punish our sins, but on 
account of Christ, to forgive us. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. 
V, 20.) 

2. As there are differences between the Law and the 
Gospel, -please to enumerate them in order. 

First. They dijffer as to the manner in . which 
the knowledge of each has been communicated. 
For the law is 7iaturally known, inasmuch as 
God has implanted and impressed some knowl- 
edge of it ug^pn the minds of men. Rom. 2 : 14, 15. 
But the Gospel is a mystery hidden from the 

Rom. 16 : 25, 26. Now to him that is of power to establish you 
according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according 
to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the 
world began, but now is made manifest, and by the Scriptures of the 
prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, ma 
known to all nations for the obedience of faith. 


3. What is another difference between the Law and 
the Gospel? 

Secondly. They differ as to their subject-matter. 
For the law comprises commandments, and teaches 
what we ought to be, what we ought to do, and 
what to omit to do. I>eut. 6 : 5. But the Gospel 
comprises the promises of grace. 

John 3:16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only be- 
gotten Son, that whosoever believeth in bim should not perish, but 
hiive everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to 
condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved. 

4. State the third difference between the Law and 
the Gospel. 

Thirdly. They differ in the fo7-ni of their prom- 
ises. For the promises of the law are compensa- 
tory, arising from a debt, where there is a just 
proportion betweii labor and reward. But the 
promises of the Gospel are purely gratuitous, 
every reference to our works being entirely ex- 

Eom."4 : 4, 5. Now to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned 
of grace, but of debt ; but to him that worketh not, but believeth 
on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteous- 
ness. {Melanckthon' s Loci.) 

5. State the fourth difference. 

Fourthly. They differ in their object. For the 
law was made for the careless, the obstinate, lov- 
ers of pleasure, hypocrites, and the old Adam; 
inasmuch as he still seeks to obtain mastery over 
the regenerate. 

1 Tim. 1 : 9. Knowing this, that the law is not made for a right- 
eous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and 


for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers, and 
murderers of mothers, for manslayers, etc. Gal. 5 : 17 (Art. x, Q. 13). 

But the Gospel was given for the contrite, cast 
down both by the knowledge and fear of divine 
wrath, in other words, the poor in spirit. 

Is. 61 : 1. The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me ; because tho 
Lord hath anointed me to preach glad tidings unto the meek, he hath 
sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, etc. Luke 4 : 18. 

6. State the ffth difference. 

Fifthly. They differ in their effects. For the 
law accuses, terrifies, works wrath and condem- 

Rom. 4:15. The law worketh wrath. 

But the Gospel is the power of God unto sal- 
vation to every one that believeth. 

Rom. 1 : 16 ; Rom. 5 : 16. The free gift is of many offences to jus- 

7. Finally, what distinction between Law and Gospel 
is involved in the controversies of the present day ? 

Concerning this last distinction, or what is the 
same, concerning the definition of the Gospel, 
properly so-called, a controversy was agitated in 
former years by the Antinomians, who contended 
that properly the Gospel is not only the doctrine 
concerning the grace of God, but also that it is 
at the same time the preaching of repentance, 
convicting men of the sin of unbelief. {Form of 
Concord, Epitome, v, 1 ; Sol. Dec, v, 2.) 

8. Do you not thus charge the Apology of the Augs- 
burg Confession ivith error, which, in Article XII, dis- 
tinctly affirms that the sum of the preaching of the 


Gospel is to convict of sin and to apply the forgiveness 
of the same f 

N"ot only does the Apology of the Augsburg 
Confession make this statement, but also the 
sainted Luther and other orthodox theologians 
thus wrote and taught; but they adhered to these 
phrases in another and a far different sense from 
that in which they were afterwards used by the 
Antinomians. For the Apology and others use 
the word Gospel in a general sense for the whole 
Christian doctrine ; but not in a special sense, as 
the Antinomians receive it. [Form of Concord, Sol. 
Dec, Art. v, 27.) 

9. I see thai the decision of this controversy depends 
upon understanding in the same sense these terms which 
have a twofold meaning. Will you therefore please to 
explain it ? 

The equivocation involved is twofold. The 
word Gospel has a twofold meaning ; and so also 
the word repentance. For the word Gospel, both 
in the Holy Scriptures and in the writings of the 
older and later theologians, is used and received 
in two senses. For,/r5^, it signifies the whole 
doctrine taught by Christ during his ministry 
upon earth, and by his command published in the 
Kew Testament, embracing both the explanation 
of the law and the announcement of the grace 
of God. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. v, 6 ; Sol. 
Dec, v, 3.) 

This is afiBrmed in Mark 1 : 1. The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus 


Christ .... John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the 
baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. 
Mark 16 ; 15. Preach the Gospel to every creature. 

But the word Gospel is used also in another 
sense, which is indeed its more correct significa- 
tion, to distinguish it from the Law. In this 
sense it signifies the joyful announcement of the 
gratuitous remission of sins on account of Christ. 
In respect to this signification, Christ himself dis- 
tinguishes these two forms of doctrine from each 

Mark 1 : 15. Repent ye, and believe the Gospel. 

10. Ap-ply this distinction to the controversy of which 
we Jiave been speaking. 

If the word Gospel be received and used in its 
general signification, without any distinction be- 
tween Law and Gospel, as referring to the en- 
tire doctrine treating of Christ, then that is a cor- 
rect definition which defines it as the preaching 
of repentance and the remission of sins. But if 
the Law and Gospel be compared with each other, 
as if we would compare Moses the teacher of the 
Law, with Christ the teacher of the Gospel, and 
thus the word Gospel be used in its restricted sig- 
7iiJication; then the Gospel is not the preaching of 
repentance convicting of sin, but properly nothing 
else than that most joyful announcement, and 
preaching full of comfort, which does not con- 
vict, or terrify, but consoles consciences against 
the terrors of the Law, and bids them look to the 
merit of Christ alone, and by its sweet message 


concerning the grace and favor of God obtained 
through the merit of Christ, again restores them 
to peace. [Melanchihon's Loci.) 

11. How many significations has the word repent- 
ance in the Holy Scriptures f 

In the Holy Scriptures it has not always one 
and the same signification. For in some parts of 
Scripture, it denotes the entire conversion of man to 
God ; as where Christ says (Luke 13 : 3), Except 
ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. 

Luke 15:7. Joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth. 
Matt. 3:2. Saying, Repe/itye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 
Luke 3 : 8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance. 
2 Pet. 3 : 9. Not willing that any should perish, but that all should 
come to repentance. 

But in other passages of Scripture, it is used in 
a restricted sense, and denotes only one part of 
conversion, namely contrition, or the soul-distress- 
ing knowledge of sin. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec.^ 
Art. V, 7-9.) 

12. H.0W can I know lohen the word repentance is 
used in its general, and when in its restricted sense f 

It is used restrictedly, when we find repentance 
and faith, or repentance and the remission of sins, 
spoken of in connection. In passages of this kind, 
to repent signifies nothing else than to come with 
soul-distressing grief to a true knowledge of sin, 
and afterwards to abstain from the commission 
of sins. 

Mark 1 : 15. Repent and believe the Gospel. 

Luke 24 : 47. And that repentance and remission of sins should ba 
preached in his name. 



Acts 20 : 21. Testifying both to the Jews and Greeks, repentance 
toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ. 

13. Ajpply Likewise this distinction to the present 

Received in the former sense, the word repent- 
ance refers at the same time to the doctrine both 
of the Law and the Gospel; but in a different 

But in the latter sense, it refers to the law alone; 
from which alone is the knowledge of sin. 

Rom. 3 : 20. For by the law is the knowledge of sin. 

14. JBut can the Law therefore convict men of that 
unbelief, of which it knows nothing? 

Yes, it can. For the Law convicts of unbelief, 
inasmuch as it proves, accuses and condemns 
every doubt or distrust of the Word of God, and 
therefore also of the word of the Gospel. [Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. v, 19.) 



1. What is the signification of the word to justify as 
used in this article ? 

It means the same as to release from sin and the 
eternal punishment of sins, or to declare right- 
eous; in which sense this word is sometimes 
used in the Scriptures. 

Prov. 17 : 15. He that justifieth the wicked, and he that coudemn- 
eth the righteous, even they both are abomination to the Lord. 


Isa. 5 : 23. Woe unto them whicli justify the wicked for reward, and 
take away the righteousness of the righteous from him. 

Rom. 8 : 33. Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? 
It is God that justifieth («'. e., who releases from sins). {Form of Con- 
cord, Epitome, Art. iii, 7; Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 17.) 

2. Mow do you define man's justification before 

Justification is a work of God, by which, out of 
pure grace, or gratuitously, he releases from sin 
the sinner who believes in Christ ; grants him 
forgiveness of the same, and so imputes the right- 
eousness of Christ to him, that being most fully 
reconciled and adopted as a son, he is freed from 
the guilt and punishment of sin, and obtains eter- 
nal blessedness. 

3. How many parts does our righteousness before 
God include ? 

Two ; one of which is privative. For God re- 
moves that which exists in us, i. e., out of mere 
grace, without any regard to our works, he for- 
gives sins. Another is positive. For God gives 
us what does not exist or inhere in us, i. e., he 
imputes to us the righteousness of Christ's obedi- 
ence. Both of which parts are expressed in Scrip- 
ture by the one word, imputation. Rom. 4 : 2-6. 
Hence our righteousness is called imputative. 

Rom. 4 : 2-6. For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath 
whereof to glory, but not before God. For what saith the Scripture? 
Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteous- 
ness. Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, 
but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that 
justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. Even 
as David also describeth the blessedness of the man unto whom God 
mputet h righteousness without works. 


4. In order to understand these things more fully I 
desire to know what you consider the causes of our 
justification ? 

There are three causes of our justification : 1. 
The grace of God; 2. The merit of Christ; 3. 
Faith, which in the promise of the Gospel accepts 
these divine blessings, {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. iii, 25.) 

5. Whai do you U7uierstand by the grace of God? 
Not an infused condition of love, as the Papists 

imagine; but the gratuitous and truly paternal 
favor of divine mercy, and the immense love of 
God, through which he, moved by no merit what- 
ever of ours, was led to pity us; and determined, 
on account of the merit or obedience alone of the 
Son, appropriated by faith, to receive believers 
into grace, to pardon their sins, and at length to 
save them eternally. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. iii, 30, 62.) 

6. Does Scripture also define the grace of God in 
this same manner? 


Eph. 2 : 4, 5, 7. God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love where- 
with be loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us 
together with Christ (by grace ye are saved), that in the ages to come 
be might show the exceeding riches of bis grace in his kindness to- 
wards us. 

2 Tim. 1 : 9. Who hath saved us and called us with a holy calling, 
not according to our works, but according to bis own purpose and 
grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began. 

Titus 3 : 5. According to his mercy he saved us. 

Rom. 3 : 24. Being justified freely by his grace, through the re- 
demption that is in Christ Jesus. 


7. Why do you refer to the merit of Christ as one 
of the causes of justification ? 

For two reasons. First. Because grace and 
the mercy of God have their source in Christ, 
and without this merit of Christ they are applied 
to no one. 

Secondly. Because Christ alone trod the wine- 
press of divine wrath, Isa. 63 : 3 ; and liberated 
us from the power of death and hell, Hos. 13 : 14 ; 
from the curse of the law. Gal. 4:5; from the 
servitude of death, and the dominion of him who 
has the power of death, namely, the devil ; be- 
cause by his obedience he made us righteous, 
Rom. 5:19; 10 : 4 ; and, finally, because the merit 
of Christ has satisfied divine justice. 

Isa. 63 : 3. I have trodden the wine-press alone ; and of the people 
there was none with me. 

Hos. 13 : 14. I will ransom them from the power of the grave ; I 
will redeem them from death. death, I will be thy plagues ; 
grave, I will be thy destruction. 

Gal. 4:4, 5. God sent'forth his Son, made of a woman, made under 
the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that they might 
receive the adoption of sons. 

Rom. 5 : 19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made sin- 
ners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. 

Rom. 10 : 4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to 
every one that believeth. 

Gal. 3:13. Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us. 

8. What do you understand by the merit of Christ ? 
I understand the obedience of Christ, not only 

that in which by means of his entire passion and 
death, he obeyed the Father, but also that, in 
which for our sake, he of his own accord sub- 



jected himself to the law of God, and fulfilled it; 
80 that God, on account of this entire obedience 
which, both by his actions and sufferings, Christ 
afibrded for us, forgives our sins, accounts us as 
good and righteous, and bestows upon us eternal 

Rom. 5 : 19. For as by one man's disobedience many were made 
sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. 
{Form of Concord.) 

Therefore that righteousness which God out of pure grace imputes 
to faith or believers, is the obedience, suffering and resurrection of 
Christ, by which he satisfied the law on our behalf, and atoned for 
our sins. For since Christ is not only man, but also God, in one un- 
divided person, in himself he was no more subject to the law than he 
was to death, inasmuch as he was the Lord of the law. On this ac- 
count, his obedience (including not only that in which he obeyed his 
Father in all his suffering and death, but also that in which on our 
behalf he subjected himself to the law, and fulfilled it) is imputed to 
him for righteousness, so that God, on account of the entire obedience 
which Christ, in laboring and suffering, in life and death, afforded his 
heavenly Father for us, forgives our sins, accounts us as good and 
righteous, and bestows upon us eternal salvation. (Form of Concord, 
Art. iii, 14-16.) 

9. Is Christ our righteousness according to his divine 
nature only, or according to his human nature only, or 
according to both ? 

Not according to his divine nature only, as 
Osiander imagined; neither according to his 
human nature o\\\y, as Stancarus fancied. But 
Christ is our righteousness, according to both 
natures, because he is our righteousness, in his 
sole, entire and perfect obedience, as God and 
man. For his human nature alone without his 
divine, neither by its obedience, nor by its suffer- 
ing, could have made satisfaction to an eternal 


and almighty God for the sins of the whole world, 
and thus have appeased his infinite wrath. A 
divine nature, too, alone, without a human nature, 
could not have fulfilled the office of a mediator 
between God and man. 

For even if Christ had been conceived by the Holy Ghost and been 
born without sin, and in his human nature alone had fulfiled all 
righteousness, and yet had not been true and eternal God, the obedi- 
ence and sufiFering of his human nature could not be imputed to us for 
righteousness ; and, on the other hand, if the Son of God had not be- 
come man, his divine nature alone could not be our righteousness. 
Wherefore, we believe, teach, and confess, that the entire obedience 
of the entire person of Christ, which he afforded on our behalf, even 
to the most ignominious death upon the cross, is imputed to us for 
righteousness. {Foim of Co7icord, Art. iii, 56.) 

10. ShoiD from the Scriptures that Christ is our 
righteousness according to both natures ? 

Isa. 35 : 4. Your Go<^ will come with a vengeance, even God with 
a recompense ; he will come and save you. 

Jer. 23 : 6. The Lord our righteousness. 

Rom. 8 : 32. God spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for 
us all. 

Gal. 4 : 4. God sent forth his Son, made under the law, to redeem 
them that were under the law. 

1 John 3 : 8. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that 
he might destroy the wt)rks of the devil. 

2 Cor. 5 : 19. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself. 
Col. 1 : 20. God in Christ, having made peace through the blood 

of his cross, through him to reconcile all things unto himself ; by him 
I say, whether they be things in earth or things in heaven. 

1 Tim. 2 : 5. One mediator between God and men, the man Ckiist 

11. Why do you mention faith among the causes of 
justifccdion ? 

Because faith alone is that means and instrument 
by which we can appropriate and receive the grace 
of God, the merit of Christ, and that righteous- 


ness found in him which ahme can endure God's 
judgment. {Fortu of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 

For faith does not justify because it is such a good work, or such 
an excellent virtue, but because in the promise of the Gospel, it ap- 
prehends and embraces the merit of Christ ; for if we wish to be jus- 
tified by this merit, it should be applied to us through faith. {Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 13.) 

Neither contrition, nor love, nor any other virtue, but faith alone, 
is the only means and instrument, by which we can apprehend and 
receive the grace of God, the merit of Christ, and the forgiveness of 
sins, all of which blessings are offered us in the promise of the Gospel. 
(Art. iii, 31.) 

12. Whatis jusUfying faith? 

Justifying faith is not mere historical knowl- 
edge of Christ; but it is a great gift of God, by 
which, in the Gospel, we correctly recognize 
Christ as our Redeemer, and trust in him, that 
alone on account of his obedience, we obtain the 
gratuitous forgiveness of sins, are considered holy 
and righteous in the sight of God the Father, and 
obtain eternal salvation. [Form of Concord., Epit- 
ome, Art. iii, 6.) 

13. Do the Holy Scriptures speak in the same man- 
ner of justifying faith? 

They do. For that faith is not mere historical 
knowledge or only a general assent (which is 
afforded, likewise, by the children of the world, 
yea, even by the devils themselves, who are not 
on this account justified), is clearly evident from 
one passage, James 2 : 19. Thou believest that 
there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also 
believe and tremble. [Augsburg Confession, Art. xx.) 


14. Ought not justifying faith therefore to he defined 
hi) knowledge ? 

It should. For this very knowledge or general 
assent is an essential requisite presupposed in 
saving faith. 

Isa. 53 :11. By his Icnowledge shall my righteous servant justify 

15. How do you 'prove that in addition to this, faith 
is likewise a firm trust? 

That justifying faith is likewise a trust appre- 
hending the promise of the Gospel, is evident 
from the fact that Scripture calls it TzX-qpocpopia, i. e., 
a sure conviction of the mind concerning our sal- 

Rom. 4 : 21. And being fully persuaded that what he had promised, 
he was able also to perform. 

Col. 2 : 2. That their hearts might be comforted, being knit to- 
gether in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of the under- 

Heb. 6 : 11. We desire that every one of you do show the same dili- 
gence to the full assurance of hope to the end. 

In other passages it is called 7tsKo{67jffc(:, full 

Rom. 8 : 38. For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor 
principalities, nor powers, etc., . . . shall be able to separate us from 
the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 

2 Cor. 3 : 4. Such trust have we through Christ to Godward. 

Eph. 3:12. In whom we have boldness and access, with confidence, 
by the faith of him. 

Likewise, TzappTjffia, a trust of divine grace and 
mercy without any fear or timidity. 

Eph. 3 : 12. (Above.) 

Heb. 3 :6. But Christ as a Son over his own house, whose house 
are we if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope 
firm unto the end. 


1 John 2 : 28. And now, little children, abide in him, that when he 
shall appear we may have confidence. 

Likewise, vnoazaai'^ and ehyyor^ an immovable 
basis and foundation, an argument without doubt, 
by which the believer is convinced in his con- 
science of the certainty of those things which he 

Heb. 11:1. Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the 
evidence of things not seen. 

16. What is the true and proper object of justifying 
faith ? 

The special promise of the Gogpel concerning 
the gratuitous forgiveness of sins, through and 
on account of the merit of Christ, appropriated 
by firm trust; or, what is essentially the same, 
the object of justifjnng faith is the merit of Christ 
offered in the promise of the Gospel. [Form of 
Concord^ Sol. Dec., Art. iii, 13.) 

17. Prove from Scripture that man is Justified by 
faith ? 

Eom. 3 : 28. We conclude that a man is justified by faith without 
the deeds of the law. 

Gal. 2 : 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the 
law, but by tiie faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus 
Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by 
the works of the law. 

Phil. 3 : 9, 10. And be found in him, not having mine own right- 
eousness, which is of the law, but that which is through faith; the 
righteousness which is of God by faith, that I may know him and 
the power of his resurrection. 

Eph. 2 : 8, 9. grace are ye saved through faith ; and that 
not of yourselves; it is the gift of God. Not of works, lest any man 
should boast. {Apology, Art. ii.) 

18. But may not these passages J perhaps^ mean that 


faith affords a hegimnng of justification, which after- 
wards is i^erfecied and completed through works ? 

By no means. For that this is not so, is clearly 
evident from the fact that Paul writes that Ahra- 
ham was justified before God, by faith alone with- 
out works, and through a mediator. This, too, 
is said of him, not only when he had just been 
converted from idolatry, and had not as yet any 
good works, Gen. 11 : 31 ; but even afterwards, 
when, renewed by the Holy Ghost, he was en- 
dowed with many excellent gifts. 

Gen. 15:6. And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it for 

Rom. 4 : 3-6 (see above, Q. 3.) 

Hob. 11 : 8, sqq. By faith, Abraham, when he 
was called to go out into a place, which he should 
after receive for an inheritance, obeyed, etc. (The 
Apostle here shows this by a number of examples.) 
[Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 83.) 

The apostle then raising the question, On what 
then did Abraham's righteousness before God 
rest? replies in these words, To him that worketh 
not, hut believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his 
faith is counted for righteousness. Even as David 
also says. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord 
grants acceptable righteousness without works. 
{Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 34.) 

19. As in this article, there is a frequent use of 
exclusive jjariicles, by faith alone, only through 
FAITH, etc, I desire to know for what reason their use 
should be retained ? 


Especially for three reasons : 

I. To entirely exclude from this article all onr 
works, whether preceding or following onr jus- 
tification, or contemporaneous with it, with all 
their worth, and all trust in them. 

II. That this office and characteristic may be 
peculiar to faith alone, and may remain so, viz., 
that faith alone, and nothing else whatever, may 
be that means and instrument by which we ap- 
propriate, receive and apply to ourselves the grace 
of God, and the merit of Christ, prom''"^"'. in the 

III. That neither renovation, nor sanctification, 
nor any other powers, be so confounded in the 
article concerning justification, as by any reason, 
pretext or name, to be considered either as a form, 
or a part, or a cause of justification, or as in any 
way necessary or belonging to this work. [Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iii, 37-39.) 

20. Can faith, therefore, exist without works ? 

It cannot. For faith and good works are not 
separated from one another in such a manner, as 
that faith can exist for any length of time, or even 
at any time, in connection with a wicked purpose; 
but there is a distinction between the two with 
respect to order, to causes and efiects, to antece- 
dents and consequences. {Form of Concord, Sol, 
Dec, Art. iii, 41.) 

21. Explain this more plainly ? 

Good works do not precede faith, but follow 


it. For when a person has ah^eady been justi- 
fied, then he is also renewed and sanctified by the 
Iloly Gliost; from which renewal good woika 
immediately follow as the fruit. Therefore, just as 
Luther says, faith and works harmoniously agree, 
and are inseparably connected ; nevertheless, faith 
alone without works appropriates the blessing, 
although it is never alone. [Form of Concord, Sol. 
Dec, Art. iii, 41.) 

22. Still one difficulty troubles me, and that is, 
that James 2 : 22 declares that man is not justified by 
faith, but by loorks. How do you explain it ? 

James does not contradict Paul : this admits 
of two proofs. For, in the first place, Paul con- 
siders faith in the sight of Go<l, as alone appre- 
hending the merit of Christ, and thus being 
reckoned by God as righteousness. But James 
is considering the question as to in what manner, 
or by what sign, man could recognize and distin- 
guish, either in himself or others, a true and liv- 
ing from a dead and hypocritical faith. On this 
account James calls that faith dead, which is not 
followed by good works and the fruits of the 
Spirit. [Apology of Augsburg Confession, Art. iii.) 

23. What is the other cause of the diversity between 
Paul and James? 

It consists in this, that Paul treats of men who 
are to be justified before God, in whose case faith 
alone, appropriating the grace of God and merit 
of Christ, can avail anything: but James treats 
of men who have already been justified through 



faith, but who are to be recogDized in this world 
by means of their good works. 



1. How does the eternal foreknowledge of God differ 
from his eternal predestination ? 

The foreknowledge or foresight of God is that 
b}^ which he foresees and foreknows all things 
before they happen ; it comprehends all creatures, 
the wicked as well as the good. But God's eter- 
nal election or predestination to salvation does 
not at the same time refer both to the good and 
the wicked, but only to the children of God who 
have been elected and ordained to obtain eternal 
life before the foundations of the world were laid, 
as the apostle testifies, saying, He predestinated 
lis unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ 
to himself. Eph. 1 : 5. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. xi, 3-5.) 

2. Wliere must we seek for the true doctrine con- 
cernimj the eternal predestination of God ? 

Not certainly in any hidden heavenly and in- 
scrutable decree of God; as if nothing further 
were required for the eternal predestination of 
God than that he should foresee what and how 
many men would obtain salvation; and who and 
how many would eternally perish ; or, as if God 


would appoint a military review, and would say : 
this one is to be saved, but that one is to be con- 
demned; this one shall continue persevering in 
faith until the end, but that one shall not perse- 
vere. Such thoughts as these certainly produce 
and strengthen in the minds of men either security 
and impenitence or anguish and despair. [Form 
of Co7}cord, Sol. Dec, Art. xi, 9.) 

3. Ought ' ive to regard and follow the judgment 
of our reason concerning the eternal predestination of 

It should be shunned and avoided in every 
manner, for it suggests thoughts of this kind : If 
God has chosen me to eternal salvation, I cannot 
be condemned, whatever I may do. But, ou the 
other hand, if I have not been chosen to eternal 
life, whatever good I may do, evidently will be 
of no profit to me; for all my efibrts will be use- 
less. These and similar thoughts either give us 
over to an Epicurean form of life, or cast us into 
despair. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. xi, 9.) 

4. Whence therefore must we seek for the correct 
doctrine concerning the eternal predestination of God ? 

From the revealed word of God; but not from 
the word of the Law, since it works wrath, Rom. 
4 : 15, but only from the word of the Gospel, 
Avhich leads us to Christ, that book of life in 
whom all are written, who obtain eternal salva- 
tion ; and which explains every decree, purpose, 
will, and ordiuation of God. [Form of Concord, 
Sol. Dec, Art. xi, 12, 13.) 


5. What is eternal 'predestination ? 

Predestination or election is a purpose or de- 
cree of the divine will made from eternity, by 
which God out of pure mercy chooses in Christ to 
eternal life, and saves all those who truly believe 
in him, and persevere in faith unto the end; 
whilst all the rest, on account of persistent unbe- 
lief, are assigned to eternal damnation. 

6. In order that you may define this more fidty^ 
please to show what God in this his eternal counsel and 
deterynination has decreed.. 

The decree or purpose of the divine will con- 
cerning predestination, comprises eight distinct 
grades, which are: redem[)tion, the call, con- 
version, justilication, sanctification, preservation 
amidst all trials, iinal confirmation, and glorifi- 

7. Whai has God decreed concerning redemption ? 
lie decreed that the whole human family 

should be truly redeemed, and reconciled with 
God through Christ. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. xi, 15.) 

8. What has God decreed concerning the call ? 
That by means of the word and sacraments, the 

merit of Christ and his benefits should be ofi:ered, 
presented and distributed to all men. [lb., 16.) 

9. Wliat, concerning conversion? 

That by his Holy Spirit through his preached 
word, heard and meditated upon, he will be efii- 
cacious in us, to turn our hearts to true repent- 
ance, and to preserve us in the true faith. {lb., 17.) 


10. What, concernivg justification f 

His eternal purpose is to justify, to receive into 
grace, and to adopt as sous and heirs of eternal 
life, all who truly repent, and by true faith em- 
brace Christ. {lb., 18.) 

11. What has God decreed corjcerning sanctifi- 
cation ? 

That he will sanctify in true love, all those who 
have been justified by faith. {Ih., 19.) 

Eph. 4 : 24. And that ye put on the new man, which after God is 
created in righteousness and true holiness. 

12. W hat, concernijig preservation ? 

God in his eternal counsel has likewise deter- 
mined in the midst of their manifold and various 
infirmities, to defend those whom he has justified, 
against the devil, tlie world, and the flesh, to 
guide them in his ways, and if they should fall to 
raise them up, so that in afllietions and tempta- 
tions they may obtain sure consolation, and be 
preserved unto life. {lb., 20.) 

13. What, concerning confirmation to the end. ? 
His eternal decree is that he will carry on, and 

establish, and preserve unto the end, that good 
work which he has begun in them: if they only 
lean firmly upon his word as on a stafi*, implore 
his aid in fervent prayers, persevere in the grace 
of God, and use faithfully and well those gifts 
which have been received. {lb., 21.) 

14. What, concerning glorification? 

God likewise has decreed in his eternal counsel, 
that he will save in another life, and adorn with 


eternal glory, those whom he has chosen, called 
and justified. {lb., 22.) 

15. Bat perhaps God has made these decrees only 
in a general manner, without any special reference to 
the elect? 

God has prepared salvation for his children not 
onl}^ in a general manner, but he has also merci- 
fully foreknown each and every person of the 
elect who would be saved through Christ, has 
elected him to salvation, and decreed that in the 
manner of which we have spoken, by means of 
Divine grace, gifts and efficacy, he will make him 
partaker of eternal salvation, and will aid and 
promote, establish and preserve him. {lb., 23.) 

16. But do all these eight requisites belong to the 
decree of election ? 

They do. For not one of these dare be ex- 
cluded or omitted, when we treat concerning the 
purpose of God, predestination, election, and or- 
dination to eternal life. {lb., 24.) 

17. Show from Scripture that God so pitied the hu- 
man race that he wished all to be saved. 

The Gospel clearly teaches that God has in- 
cluded all under unbelief, that he might have 
mercy upon all. (liom. 11 : 32.) 

John 3 : 16. God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten 
Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have 
everlasting life. 

So also Paul : 

God will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge 
of the truth. (1 Tim. 2 : 4.) 


And Peter : 

2 Pet. 3 ■ 9. The Lord is not willing that any should perish, but 
that all should come to repentance. 

18. Did God loish to redeem through his Son oil 
men without any distinction ? 


Is. 53 : 6. The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. 

Rom. 5 : 18. As by the offence of one judgment came upon all men 
to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one the free gift 
came upon a!l men unto justification of life. 

2 Cor. 5 : 15. He died for all. 

1 Tim. 2 : 6. Who gave himself a ransom for all. 

1 John 2 : 2. He is the propitiation for our sins : and not for ours 
only, but also for the sins of the vphole world. 

Hence Christ invites all sinners to himself, and 
promises to restore them. He also seriously 
wishes that all men should come to him, and per- 
mit themselves to be cared for and relieved. In 
his word he offers himself to them as Redeemer, 
and desires that they should hear this word ; he 
promises also to grant them the power and work 
of the Holy Ghost, and divine aid, so that they 
may remain firm in faith, and obtain eternal life. 
{Form, of Concord, Epitome, Art. xi, 8.) 

19. Prove that God by his Gospel has made pro- 
vision for the calling of all men to Christ ? 

This is clearly evident from the fact that Christ 
commanded " that repentance and remission of 
sins should be preached in his name among 
all nations," Luke 24 : 47 ; that, " the sound of 
the preached word went into all the earth, and 
their words unto the ends of the world," Rom. 
10 ; 18; Ps. 19 : 4; that the Gospel "was preached 


to cveiy creature which was under heaven," Col. 
1 : 2'J; that he commanded all iiatioiis to be bap- 
tized, Mark 16:15; that he commanded all to 
partake of the cup of blessing, Matt. 26 : 27; and 
finally, from the promise, that the Holy Ghost 
with his presence and efficacy would accompany 
the word when preached, heard, and carefully laid 
to heart. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, xi, 28.) 

Luke 24 : 47. And that repentance and remission of sins should be 
preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 

Col. 1 : 23. If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and 
be not moved aw;iy from the hope of the Gospel, which ye have heard, 
and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven. 

Ps. 19 : 4. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their 
woids to the end of the world. Rom. 10 : 18. 

Murk 16:15. Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
e\ ery creature. 

Matt. 26 : 27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it 
to them saying, Drink ye all of it. 

20. Bat is God actually in earnest in making this 
universal call ? 

God forbid that we should entertain the idea, 
that this call, which is oflered to us through the 
Gospel, is a matter of deception or fancy; but 
we confidently affirm, that God has revealed to 
us his actual will, viz., that in those whom he calls 
through the Gospel, he will be efficacious, in or- 
der that they may be enlightened, converted, and 
saved. And indeed so much in earnest is God in 
this desire, that he follows with tears the impeni- 
tence of those who perish, and in a most solemn 
manner testifies that he does not wish the death 
of those who die, but desires to gather them as a 


lien gathereth her chickens. [Form, of Concord, 
Sol. Dec.,x\, 29.) 

Ezek. 18 : 23. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should 
die ? saith the Lord God : and not that he should return from his ways, 
and live. 

Ezek. 33 : 11. As I live, saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure in 
the death of the wicked ; but that the wicked turn from his way and 
live : turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways ; for why will ye die, 
house of Israel. 

Matt. 23 : 37. Jerusalem. Jerusalem, thou that killest the proph- 
ets, !ind stonest them which are sent unto (hee, how often would I have 
gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens 
under her wings, and ye would not. 

21. Is the eternal election of God equally universal 
iviih his mercy, redemption, and call? 

By no means. For to this Christ refers in the 
passage: 3Ia})y are called, but few are chosen. 
For we must in no manner imagine that the 
term elect includes those who' despise, resist, blas- 
pheme and persecute the word of God; who when 
hearing it, liarden their hearts against its influ- 
ences; who strive against the Holy Ghost; who 
without repentance persevere in sin, and who 
do not truly believe in Christ. [Form of Concord, 
Epitome, xi, 12.) 

22. But why is this election particular ? 

Because, just as God in his eternal counsel, or- 
dained that the Holy Ghost through the word, 
should call, enlighten, convert,justify,and bring to 
eternal salvation all those who embrace Christ in 
true faith; so also in his eternal counsel, he decreed 
that he would harden, reject, and give over to 
eternal condemnation, those who, called through 


his word, reject the call, resist the Holy Ghost 
(desiring to work in them effectuallj through the 
word), and obstinately persevere in their froward- 
ness. [Form of Concord, Sol. Bee, Art. xi, 39.) 

23. The cause of this jparticularity does not rest 
therefore with God ? 

Your inference is correct. For the cause that 
many are called, but few chosen, is not the di- 
vine call which is made through the word, as if 
God were unwilling that all should be converted 
and saved through himself. In this manner we 
would assign to God two wills, as if he who is 
eternal truth could contradict himself, or could 
speak one thing, whilst in his heart he was con- 
cealing another. Such hypocrisy, when found in 
men, God condemns and punishes. Why ? Be- 
cause the consequence of this would be an over- 
throw of the foundation of our faith, which de- 
pends alone upon the word of God, inasmuch as 
from it we are rendered certain concerning God's 
will in reference to our salvation. [Form of Con- 
cord, Epitome, Art. xi, 12; Sol. Dec, Art. xi, 39.) 

24. What therefore is the reason that the eternal 
election of God is particular and not universal? 

The cause lies in the wickedness and froward- 
ness of men themselves. For but few seriously 
receive the word of God, and obey it sincerely. 
The greater portion despise the word, and are not 
willing to be present at the marriage supper of 
the king. Many, indeed, at first receive tlie word 
with great joy; but afterwards they fall away 


again, and wickedly turn themselves from God's 
holy commandment. {Form of Concord^ Sol. Dec, 
Art. xi, 40, 41.) 

25. In whom, is the election made ? 

In Christ alone. Eph. 1:4. God hath chosen 
us in Christ, before the foundations of the earth 
were laid. V. 6. He hath made us accepted in 
the Beloved. 

Hence the entire Holy Trinity, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, leads all men to Christ, the 
book of life, that they may search and find in 
him the eternal predestination of the Father. 
On this account Christ himself has said, JSTo man 
cometh unto the Father, but by me. John 14 : 6. 
I am the door; by me if any man enter in, he 
shall be saved. John 10 : 9. [Form of Concord, Sol, 
Dec, Art. xi, m.) 

26. But as Christ is the Redeemer of all men, and 
as election is made in Christ, dare we not say that all 
men have been elected in Christ, and consequently that 
election is universal ? 

In the decree of election, Christ is considered 
not only as a universal Mediator, but also as men 
appreliend him by an act of faith. For he him- 
self announces the will of his tieaveuly Father, 
and our election to eternal life, in these words : 
Repent ye and believe the Gospel, Mark 1:15; 
and in another place, This is the will of him that 
sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and 
BELIE VETH on Mm, may have everlasting life. John 
6 : 40. And elsewhere : God so loved the world that 


he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever be- 
LiEVETH IN HIM shouldnot pevish, but have everlast- 
imj life. John 3 : 16. {lb., 67.) 

27. Do you therefore state that God has elected men 
with respect to foreseen faith ? 

What else should I state, when the Holy Scrip- 
tures with such exceeding clearneSvS, declare this 
truth ? The Apostle certainly affirms, Eph. 1 : 5, 
that God has predestinated us unto the adoption 
of children. But now Christ gives the power to 
become sons of God, not to those who have been 
born of blood, or of the will of the flesh, or of the 
will of man, but of God, i. e., according to the in- 
terpretation of John, those who believe on his 
name. John 1 : 12. Hence the Saviour, John 17: 
20, describing the elect, says, " Neither pray I for 
these alone; but for them also which shall believe 
on me through their word." 2 Thess. 2 : 13. " God 
hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, 
through sanctiiicatiou of the Spirit, and belief of 
the truth." In 1 Tim. 1 : 16, the Apostle speaks 
of the elect as those "which should hereafter be- 
lieve on Christ to life everlasting." James 2 : 5. 
" Hath not God chosen the poor of this world, 
rich in faith ?" Hence the Epitome of the Form 
of Concord correctly infers that God in his eter- 
nal counsel has decreed to save none but those 
who confess his Son, Jesus Christ, and truly be- 
lieve in him. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. 
xi, 67.) 

28. But inasmuch as he does not grant faith to all, 


does not God seem to be the cause of the unbelief of all 
who do not accept Christ? 

God forbid that we should state that he refuses 
faith, and consequently salvation, to any one. 
But, on the other hand, rather that those who 
have been rejected, are the cause, and bear the 
guilt, of their own destruction ; since they have 
heard the word, not with the intention or pur- 
pose to learn it seriously and for their own 
wants ; but, on the contrary, to despise, blas- 
pheme, and deride it, and resist the Holy Ghost, 
who, through the word, desires to work in them. 
[Form of Concord, Fpitome, Art. xi, 12.) 

29. You have w,entioned perseverance among the 
marks of the elect ; hence, I wish to know whether the 
elect can be sure of their perseverance in faith? 

Yes ; they are perfectly sure of it. For, in the 
first place, they know that election and salvation 
are founded only upon Christ, against whom the 
gates of hell cannot prevail. 

This doctrine affords us also excellent comfort. For how great is 
God's kindness, in that he was so anxious concerning the conversion, 
righteousness, and salvation of each Christian, and so faithfully pro- 
vided thereto, that before the foundations of the world were laid, ho 
consulted, and then already in his own hidden purpose, determined, 
how he would call and lead me to salvation, and preserve me therein. 
In what manner ? In that he wished to secure my salvation so firmly 
as to bring it within his eternal purpose, as into a most firm citadel, 
which cannot fail or be overthrown, and thus placed it for preserva- 
tion in the almighty hand of our Lord Jesus Christ, whence no one 
can pluck us. John 10 : 28. Therefore Paul bases the certainty of our 
blessedness upon the ground of the divine purpose, since from the 
fact that we are called according to the purpose of God, he infers that 
"no one can separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ 



Jesus our Lord." Rom. 8 : 28, 39. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. 
xi, 45.) 

Secondh/. The Holy Ghost also dwells in the 
elect, as in his own temple; and he is not in- 
active in them, but leads them to obey the divine 
commandments, and, likewise, bears witness to 
them that they are the children of God. [Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. xi, 73.) 

Finally. They know with certainty that God 
hears them when they call upon him. Luke 11 : 13. 
" If ye then, being evil, know how to give good 
gifts unto your children : how much more shall 
your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to 
them that ask him ? " {lb., 72.) 

30. But cannot the elect fall from the grace of 

They can; bat in such a manner that by the 
power of the Holy Ghost, through true repent- 
ance and faith, they again return to God and to 
life. For, unless they would return, they would 
not be in the number of the elect, but only in the 
number of those who believe for a time, and in 
the time of temptation fall away, and are con- 

31. Is the number of the elect fixed? 

In God's foreknowledge, or rather in his divine 
omniscience, it is ; but it is not fixed by any un- 
alterable and immutable decree. For there is no 
doubt but that God, long before the existence of 
the world, most exactly and certainly foreknew, 
and also that he even now knows, who among 


the called will believe in Christ, and who will 
not believe; who among the converted will per- 
severe in faith, and who will not ; and who, hav- 
ing fallen, will commit still more grievous sins, 
and perish in their crimes. Hence, undoubtedly, 
God fully knows the number of those who will be 
saved, and of those who will be condemned. {Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. xi, 55.) 



1. Is it the will of God that believers should abound 
in good works ? 

No one denies that all men, and especially those 
who have been born again and renewed by the 
Holy Ghost, should perform good works. 

Matt. 5 : 16. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see 
your good -works and glorify your Father, which is in heaven. 

2 Cor. 9 : 8. That ye may abound to every good work. 

1 Thess. 4 : 7. For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but 
unto holiness. 

Eph. 2 : 10. For we are his •workmanship, created in Christ Jesus 
unto good works, which God hath before ordained, that we should 
■walk in them. 

And as it is impossible for a good tree to bring 
forth evil fruit, Matt. 7 : 18, it is in like manner 
impossible, that one justified by faith, should be 
destitute of good works. 


We also believe, teach, and confess, that all men, but especially 
those born again and renewed by the Holy Ghost, should perform 
good works. {Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. iv.) 

In the first place, as to this article, there is no dispute amongst us, 
in regard to the following points, namely, that it is the will, arrange- 
ment, and command of God, that believers are to abound in good 
works. (Form, of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iv.) 

2. What are good works f 

Good works are those inward and outward ac- 
tions, enjoined by God, and comprehended in the 
ten commandments, which faith, wrought by the 
Holy Spirit, enables the regenerate to perform, 
to the glory of God, and as an evidence both of 
our obedience, and of our gratitude to Him. 

3. Then you maintain that no works are truly good, 
save those which have been commanded by God him- 

Certainly ; for those are not truly good works, 
which every person, of his own mind, thinks out 
for himself, or which are done after the ordi- 
nances of men, but only those which God him- 
self has prescribed and enjoined in his "Word. 

Deut. 12 : 32. Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here 
this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes. What things 
soever I command you, observe to do it ; thou shalt not add thereto, 
nor diminish from it. 

4. How are truly good ivorks performed ? 

Such good works are not performed of our own 
natural powers, but only when a person is recon- 
ciled to God through faith, and renewed by the 
Holy Ghost, or as Paul says, new created in 
Christ Jesus unto good works. (See Form of Con- 
cord, as above.") 


5. Do good works, then, please God, and if so, why ? 
Good works please God, and are agreeable unto 

him, on account of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is 
apprehended by faith, which faith causes the per- 
son of man to be acceptable and well-pleasing to 
God. {Form of Concord J as above; Apology, Art iii.) 

6. Are not the good works of the heathen pleasing 
to God? 

Those works which belong to the preservation 
of external discipline, and which are performed 
even by unbelievers, and the unconverted, although 
they are praiseworthy in the eyes of the world, 
and besides are rewarded by God with temporal 
possessions in this world : yet, since they do not 
proceed from true faith, are indeed sin in the 
eyes of God, that is, they are tainted with sin, 
and are considered by God sins and impurities, 
because the person is not reconciled to God : for 
an evil tree cannot bring forth good fruits. And, 
whatever does not proceed from faith is sin. Rom. 
14 : 23. (See Form of Concord, Part ii, Sol. Dec.) 

7. What reasons can he assigned why good works 
must be performed ? 

Good works must be performed : 
(1.) Because of the divine injunction. 
(2.) For the exercise of faith. 
(3.) As a confession of one's faith. 
(4.) Out of gratitude. 

(5.) On account of the rewards which have been 
graciously promised them. 


For good works must be done, because God has enjoined them, fur- 
thermore for the exercise of faith, as a confession, and out of grati- 
tude. For these reasons good works must necessarily be performed, 
which although they are done in the flesh, not as yet entirely renewed, 
retarding the operations of the Holy Ghost, and infecting them with 
some of its own impurity ; yet are holy works and pleasing to God, 
because of faith, and are sacrifices and governmental acts of Christ, 
who thus exhibits his kingdom to the world. For in them he sanc- 
tifies the heart, represses Satan, and in order to preserve the Gospel 
among men, opposes the confession of the saints to the realm of the 
devil, revealing his power in our weakness. (Apology, Art. iii.) 

8. Are these rewards of good works the grace hy 
which we are justified ? 

They are not : for, we receive the grace of God, 
the forgiveness of sins, justification and everlast- 
ing life, only through faith, not by our merits. 

The rewards of good works are therefore cor- 
rectly defined, partly, as temporal possessions in 
this life, partly, as the degrees of glory in the life 
to come. But these rewards themselves do not 
depend on the merit of our works, but depend 
solely on the grace of God, who has promised 

9. Can we, then, earn owr justification and everlast- 
ing life by good works ? 

Not in the least. First. For we receive the for- 
giveness of sins and justification solely through 
faith in Christ, as Christ himself says, Luke 17 : 
10, " So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all 
these things which are commanded you, say. We 
are unprofitable servants, we have done that which 
was our duty to do." 

Secondly. " The idea that good works are meri- 


torious, obscures the glory of Christ, since men 
exhibit these works of theirs to God as the price 
by which they are redeemed, and as their atone- 
ment." {Augsburg Confession, Art. vi.) 

" Whoever, then, thinks to effect this by works, 
and to merit grace, despises Christ, and seeks a 
way of his own unto God, contrary to the Gospel." 
(Augsburg Confession, Art. xx.) 

Thirdly. "AfiVighted consciences do not find 
peace in such works ; on the contrary, whilst 
they in real terror constantly heap one good work 
on another, they finally despair, because they can 
find no work that is pure enough ; so that the law 
constantly accuses and condemns them." (Aj^ologg, 
Art. iii.) 

Fourthly. " Those who rely on their good works, 
never attain to the knowledge of God, but, angry 
themselves, rather flee from a condemning and 
punishing God : besides, they never think that 
they are heard. But faith shows that God freely 
forgives and hearkens for the sake of His Son." 
[Augsburg Coiifession, Art. xx.) 

Finally, it is opposed to Holy Scripture, which 
testifies that we are justified and saved solely 
through faith, without works, as was shown in 
the preceding article. [Apology, Art. iii.) 

10. Are good works necessary or not ? 

It is clearly evident from what has been already 
said that good works are necessary, not indeed for 
salvation, but because of other reasons. For, they 
are required of believers, as fruits of faith : and 


faith without love is dead, although love is not 
the cause of our salvation. [Form of Concord, Art. 
iv; Augsburg Confession, Art. xx.) 

11. Does not this seem to conflict with the liberty 
of the children of God, inasmuch as their works are 
not necessary, but free and voluntary? 

These two by no means conflict with each 
other; a matter which becomes perfectly clear, 
so soon as a double distinction is observed. For, 
in the first place, the word " necessary " is used to 
denote an absolute necessity, or a compulsion. 
In the second place, the word " necessary " is 
used in a conditional sense, meaning an obedi- 
ence, which we owe to God, and which is shown 
because of God's arrangement, command, and 
will. In the primary sense, the necessity abol- 
ishes all freedom of action ; but in the latter it is 
subordinate to this freedom. [Form of Concord^ 
Fpitome, Art. iv; Sol. Dec, Art. iv.) 

12. Which is the other distinction? 

This concerns the word "free" or "freedom," 
which is used in a special and general sense. 
Taken in its special sense, it is opposed to neces- 
sity and constraint; but taken in a general sense, 
it is set over against the regulation, command, 
and duty of the law ; for the law is not strictly 
opposed to freedom, but they are subordinate the 
one to the other. 

13. Adapt these distinctions to the question at issue, 
ayid show whether good works are necessary or free. 


If these distinctions are observed, it is clear that 
the works of the regenerate are both free and 
necessary. But they are necessary, not from the 
necessity of constraint, but only from the neces- 
sity of command, or of that obedience due to God 
which true believers, in so far as they are born 
again, show, not from constraint or compulsion 
of the law, but of a willing spirit, because they 
are no longer under the law, but under grace. 
[Form of Concord^ Epitome, Art. iv.) 

Again : these works are free, the word free 
being taken in its special sense, in so far as the 
regenerate work with a voluntary mind; but they 
are not free in such a way, " as if it were arbitrary 
with a regenerate man to do good or to abstain 
from it, as he wished, and yet retain faith, even 
if he intentionally remained in sin." [Form of Con- 
cord, Epitome, Art. iv.) 

14. If good works are necessary, does it follow that 
they are necessary for salvation? 

In former years, soon after the death of our 
sainted Luther, there were some who made use 
of such expressions as these : " Good works are 
necessary to salvation ; it is impossible to be 
saved without good works; no one has ever been 
saved without good works." But these expres- 
sions have met with the disapproval and con- 
demnation of the orthodox, from sure and weighty 
reasons, as being such as deviate from the form 
of sound words. (See Form of Concord, Epitome, 
Art. iv; also Sol. Dec.) 


15. 31eniion these reasons. 

(1.) These expressions directly conflict with the 
doctrine of the exclusive particles, i. e., the words 
with which St. Paul excludes our works and 
merit from the article of justification. For St. 
Paul excludes our works and merits entirely 
from that article, and ascribes everything solely 
to the grace and mercy of God, and to the merit 
of Christ, assuring us of the blessedness only of 
that man to whom God imputes righteousness 
without works. Eom. 4 : 6. 

(2.) Such expressions as the above deprive 
troubled and afflicted consciences of the true 
comfort of the Gospel, and give rise to doubt 
concerning the grace of God. 

(3.) Expressions of this character increase temer- 
ity and a false delusion of one's own righteous- 
ness, and a confidence in our own worthiness. 
[Form of Concord,, Sol. Dec.,, Art. iv.) 

(4.) They were taken from the Formula of the 
Interim, and therefore orginated with declared 
enemies of the truth. {Form of Concord, as above.) 

(5.) Our sainted Luther rejected and condemned 
these expressions on the part of the false apostles, 
who led the Galatians into error, also on the part 
of the Papists, Anabaptists, and finally of some 
others. {Form of Concord, as above.) 

16. Do not good works sustain faith, righteousness, 
and salvation ? 

No. " For faith does not take hold of right- 
eousness and salvation in such a way as afterward 


to transfer its office to works, so that the latter 
must thereafter sustain faith, righteousness, and 
salvation ; but faith is the real and only means by 
which righteousness and salvation are not only 
received but also sustained." 

" We believe, teach, and also confess, that works do not sustain 
faith and salvation in us, but that the Spirit of God alone maintains 
salvation in us through faith, of whose presence and indwelling the 
good works are witnesses.'' (For'm of Cojicord, Sol. Dec, Art. iv ; 
Epitome, Art. iv.) 

17. Can you prove this from Holy Scripture? 

St. Paul, Rom. 5 : 1, 2, ascribes unto faith the 
access to grace, and not merely this but also the 
fact that we persevere in grace and boast of future 
glory; that is, he ascribes to faith alone the begin- 
ning, the middle, and the end, saying : Therefore, 
being justified by faith, we have peace with God, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ. By whom also 
we have access by faith into this grace wherein we 
standi and rejoice in the hope of the glory of God. 
[Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. iv.) 

Rom. 11 : 20. Well ; because of unbelief they were broken off, and 
thou standest by faith. 

Col. 1 : 22, 23. To present you holy, and unblamable, andunreprov- 
able, in his sight : if ye continue in the faith grounded and settled. 

1 Peter 1 : 5. Who are kept by the power of God through faith 
unto salvation. 

18. If good works are not necessary to salvation, 
are they then injurious and destructive to salvation? 

" If any one were to mingle his good works 
with the article of Justification, fix his righteous- 
ness or his trust in salvation on them, therewith 
to merit the grace of God, and thereby to be 


saved ; St. Paul himself says, thrice repeating it, 
that to such a man his good works may not only 
become useless and a hindrance, but also destruc- 
tive to salvation." [Form of Concord, as above.) 

Phil. 3 : 7, 8. But what things were gain to me, those I counted 
loss for Christ ; yea, douhtless, and I count all things but loss for the 
excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I 
have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that 
I may win Christ. 

19. In this manner good works would in themselves 
be injurious and pernicious. 

You draw a wrong inference reasoning from that 
which is accidental to that which is essential. For, 
through that which is accidental, it happens that 
good works are injurious; in so far, namely, as a 
false confidence is put in them contrary to the ex- 
press word of God. Nevertheless, it is not on this 
account lawful to maintain, simply and without 
reservation, that good works are injurious to be- 
lievers or to their salvation. For this expression, 
thus unrestrictedly stated, is false and oftensive; 
by it discipline and honesty is weakened, and a 
rude, wild, secure, Epicurean life introduced and 
strengthened. {Form of Concord, as above.) 



1. Can those who have relapsed after baptism again 
become partakers of the grace of God? 


The l^Tovatians lonsr ao-o denied that those who 
had fallen after baptism could be restored to grace. 
Our church diiiers from such, and teaches, that 
those who have sinned after baptism, can at any 
time, provided they repent, obtain forgiveness of 
sins, and that absolution shall not be denied them 
by the church. {Auc/sOurg Confession, Art. xii.) 

2, Do the Holy Scriptures also teach thus ? 
Yes; for this is the real object of the Gospel, 

to proclaim to the penitent the grace of God and 
the gratuitous forgiveness of sins, and this not 
merely once, but as often as a poor sinner hear- 
tily repents of his sins. Thus saith the Lord, 
Ezek. 18 : 30, 32: "Repent and turn yourselves 
from all your transgressions, so iniquity shall not 
be your ruin. For I have no pleasure in the death 
of him that dieth, — wherefore turn yourselves 
and live ye." Thus the Saviour intrusts the of- 
fice of the keys to the apostles and ministers of 
the church. Matt. 18 : 18, saying, "Whosesoever 
sins ye remit the}' are remitted unto ihem ; Jind 
whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained." 
John 20 : 23. Accordingly, he speaks not only 
of those who are not yet regenerate, but also of 
those who have fallen after baptism. Thus Peter, 
who was filled with repentance and sorrow, be- 
cause of his denial of the Lord, and Thomas, who 
repented of his unbelief, received grace and the 
forgiveness of sins. 

3. What is repentance ? 

Repentance or conversion to God is the con- 



trition of the heart because of our sin, and the 
trust which assuredly promises to itself the for- 
giveness of sins, reconciliation, justification, and 
quickening for Christ's sake, combined with the 
firm resolve to begin a new obedience. [Me- 

4. Of how many parts does repentance consist f 
Of two ; namely, contrition because of sin, and 

faith. (Melanchihon.) 

5. Is not the new obedience a part of repentance ? 

The new obedience or good works follow gen- 
uine penitence, sorrow, and faith. They do not 
therefore constitute a part of repentance, but are 
rather its fruits and effects. {Melanchihon.) 

6. What do you understand by contrition or penitence 
and sorrow ? 

" We say, that contrition or true penitence is 
this, when the conscience is affrighted, and begins 
to feel its sin and the great anger of God at sin, 
and sorrows that it has sinned." [Apology, Art. v.) 

7. Can you prove this from Holy Scripture ? 

Yes ; for Holy Scripture speaks of these ter- 
rors of conscience. Ps. 38 : 4. "For mine iniqui- 
ties are gone over mine head, as an heavy burden, 
they are too heavy for me." Ps. 6:3. " O Lord, 
heal me: for my bones are vexed. My soul is 
also sore vexed." And Hezekiah, Is. 38 : 13. "As 
a lion, so will he break all my bones." 

8. What do you understand faith to be ? 
Nothing else than the firm confidence, that all 


our sins are forgiven us, through and on account 
of the merit of Christ, freely, and without any 
merit of our own. 

9. Whence must true contrition arise ? 

The preceding article shows this: namely, from 
the law alone, whose sum and office it is to re- 
prove of sin. " For by the law is the knowledge 
of sin." Rom. 3 : 20. " The law worketh wrath." 
Rom. 4 : 15. " i!^ay, I had not known sin, but by 
the law." Rom. 7 : 7. {Apology, Art. v.) 

10. Does contrition merit anything ? 

The Papists indeed maintain that men merit 
grace by such pains and terrors, if they still love 
God. But this is false and erroneous; for how 
are men to love God amid such great terrors, 
whilst they are experiencing the terrible and un- 
speakable wrath of God ? Nay more, these ter- 
rors are so far from meriting grace, that they will 
rather bring men to despair, if they remain alone, 
as is proved by the history of Saul and Judas. 

11. What then is needed besides contrition, if the 
latter is to prove salutary f 

The other part of repentance is required, namely, 
faith in Christ. For in such terrors the Gospel of 
Christ must be held up, in which forgiveness of 
sins is graciously promised through Christ. [Apol- 
ogy, Art. V.) 

Hence contrite hearts must believe that their 
sins are graciously forgiven for Christ's sake. 
This faith raises up the contrite, strengthens and 


animates them, according to the Word : " There- 
fore being justified by faith, we have peace with 
God, through our Lord Jesus Christ." R,oni. 5 : 
1. This faith obtains the forgiveness of sins; 
this faith justifies before God. 

12. How mcwy parts do the Papists assign to re- 
pentoiice ? 

These three: contrition of heart, confession of 
the lip*, and satisfaction by works, with tliis com- 
fort and assurance, tliat when a person, truly con- 
trite, confesses and performs satisfaction, he there- 
by merits forgiveness, and pays a full ransom 
before God. [Sniulcald Articles, Part iii. Art. iii.) 

13. What do you think of these three parts ? 

I am of the opinion, that they, at least as they 
are explained by the Papists, are not founded on 
Holy Scripture, and that it is impossible, yea, 
even wicked, to observe them. 

14. What hind of contrition do the Papists exact ? 
In tlie first j)lace, such as soitows not only in 

general over all sins, but which is afllicted in 
particular at every individual sin, and in such a 
manner that a man does not receive forgiveness 
of every sin for which he has not experienced 
contrition. In the second place, they fancy that 
if a person cannot have such cordriiionj he must 
at least experience attrition, that is, semi-contrition, 
or the beginning of contrition. 

Finally, if any one should say that he cannot 
experience such contrition, they ask him if he 
does not wish for itj if he reply in the aflirma- 


tive, they regard this as contrition, and forgive his 
sins, because of this good work. {Smalcald Arti- 
cles, Part iii. Art. iii.) ^ 

15 . What is your opinion of this Born ish con trition ? 
I hold such a contrition to be a manufactured 

and invented notion, arising out of one's own 
powers, without faith, without the knowledge of 
Christ, that is, pure hypocrisy, which cannot de- 
stroy the lust of sin. {Smalcald Articles.) 

16. What is the nature of the oral confession, which 
the Papists demand ? 

The Papists formerly demanded, and even now 
demand such a confession as this : Every individ- 
ual was required to recount all his sins; but those 
which he had forgotten were forgiven him, on the 
condition that he would confess them, when they 
occurred to him. (Smalcald Articles.) 

17. Is there any defect in this confession ? 

Yes ; for in the first place it is an impossibility. 
"Who can remember all the sins committed in a 
single week, to say nothing of a whole year, in 
such a way, as to be able to enumerate them singly 
and in order? Quite diflerent is the prayer of 
David : " Who can understand his errors ? Cleanse 
thou me from secret faults." 

Secondly. This confession was nought else than 
a great torture of the consciences of men, which 
were bound, inasmuch as they were persuaded, 
that without this exact enumeration no forsive- 
ness of sins could be obtained. 


In the third place, such a confession led men to 
despair; for they imagined that the above con- 
fession, the complete confession of sins, was ne 
cessary to salvation. 

But, because the human mind could never be 
certain whether it had confessed every sin or not, 
it was forced thus to despair of its salvation. 
The\Y final invention was that it was meritorious; 
the franker and more sincere the confession, and 
the greater the shame manifested before the priest, 
the more complete would be the satisfaction for 
the sin. [Smalcald Articles, Apology.) 

18. Do you then reject all oral confession. ? 

Not in the least. I rather believe that confes- 
sion must be retained in the church on account 
of private absolution, which is the word of God, 
announcing to those who seriously confess their 
sins, the forgiveness of the same in accordance 
with the divine injunction. [Apology.) 

19. But ID hat confession do you consider necessary ? 

I certainly do not look upon such as neces- 
sary which requires the enumeration of every sin, 
for such is not only impossible, but also burdens 
the conscience; but I regard that as necessary 
which is made before God immediately or di- 
rectly, like the one made by David, Ps. 32 : 5, "I 
acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity 
have I not hid. I said, I will confess my trans- 
gressions unto the Lord ; and thou forgavest the 
iniquity of my sin ;" or mediately, that is, either 
publicly before the -whole congregation, or pri- 


vatelj before a minister of the church, before 
whom confession is made either in general of all 
sins, or specially of one sin, should the stings of 
conscience render such a confession necessary. 
{Augsburg Confession, Art. xi, xxv; Apology, Art. 
vi; Smaller Catechism.) 

20. What therefore is such confession? 

It is nothing else than a contrition, in which 
those feeling the wrath of God confess that God 
is justly angry, and cannot be reconciled by our 
works; and at the same time seek mercy and 
forgiveness of sins for Christ's sake. [Apology, 
Art. vi.) 

21. What is to he thought of private absolution? 
That it is the command of God that we are to 

have confidence in such an absolution, and firmly 
to believe that we are as truly reconciled to God 
as if we had heard a voice from heaven to this 
effect. [Form of Concord, Art. xi.) 

22. What do you state concerning the third part of 
Romish repentance ? 

Precisely the same as concerning Romish auric- 
ular confession, namely, that the legal satisfac- 
tions which are imposed by the priests for the 
atonement of sins are not by divine right, and 
therefore not at all necessary. For this doctrine 
must above all things be maintained and remain, 
that we obtain the forgiveness of sins by faith 
on account of Christ, not by our works, whether 
past, present, or future. [Apology, Art. vi.) 




1 . Is it allowable to seek the office of the holy min- 
istry ? 

Notliing should hinder us from seeking this 
lioly office, that is, from offering our services to 
tlie church. For "if a man desire the office of a 
bisliop, he desireth a good work." But one is 
not permitted to run himself, which happens 
when a ])erson intrudes and forces a call by 
means of diverse acts, cunning, and briberies. 
Of such the Lord himself complains by the 
[►rophet, "I have not sent these prophets, yet 
they ran; I have not spoken to them, yet they 
prophesied." Jeremiah 23 : 21. 

2. For what purpose was the office of the ministry 

In order that we might obtain faith, the minis- 
try of teaching the Gospel and administering the 
sacraments was instituted. For by the word and 
sacraments, as through means, the Holy Ghost 
is given, who works faith in those who hear the 
Gospel, wherever and whenever it seems good to 
God. [Augsburg Confession, Art. v.) 

3. Catinot the Holy Ghost be imparted to man 
without the word ? 

Kg; the church long since coudemned this 


error in the Anabaptists, who believed that the 
Holy Ghost is given to men without the external 
word of the Gospel by means of their preparations 
and works. [Augsburg Confession, Avt. v.) 

4. How manifold is the word administered by the 
office of the ministry ? 

The whole of Scripture must be divided into 
two principal parts, — the Law and the Gospel. 
The Gospel presents the promises of grace con- 
cerning the forgiveness of sin, justification and 
life everlasting, for the sake of Christ, appre- 
hended by faith. The law, on the other hand, 
comprehends especially the ten commandments, 
and demands from us works and perfection. 

" The eutire Holy Scripture, both of the Old and New Testaments, 
is divided into these two parts, and teaches those two parts, namely, 
the law and the divine pi omises. For in some places the word of God 
holds out the law to us, in others it oflFers grace through the glorious 
promises concerning Christ ; as, for example, when, in the Old Testa- 
ment, the Scriptures promise the Christ, who is to come, and ofifer 
eternal blessing, benediction, everlasting salvation, justification and 
eternal life through him ; or, in the New Testament, when Christ, 
since his coming on earth, promises forgiveness of sins, justification, 
and everlasting life.'' {Apology, Art. ii.) 

5. By whom was the office of the ministry insti- 

Certainly not by men, but by God himself, ac- 
cording to the testimony of Christ, John 20 : 21 : 
" As my Father hath sent me, even so send I 

Matt. 28:19, 20. Christ himself sends bis disciples, and says, Go 
ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to ob- 
serve all things whatsoever I have commanded you. 


Matt. 16 : 15. Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
every creature. 

6. Dare we avail ourselves of the office of the min- 
istry when it is filled by evil and wicked ministers ? 

If by evil ministers, you mean those whose 
walk indeed is impure, and whose life is stained 
with vice and infamy, but whose doctrine is pure 
and correct, then I certainly believe that one may 
avail himself of their service, and that their office 
is efficient; and on that account I reject the error 
of the Donatists, who denied that one might avail 
himself of the office of wicked ministers in the 
church, and held the office of such to be useless 
and inefficien 

" In like manner, although the Christian church in reality is noth- 
ing else than the assembly of all believers and saints, nevertheless, 
since there are in this life many false Christians and hypocrites, and 
because even open sinners remain among the pious, the sacraments, 
notwithstanding, are eflfectual, although the priests by whom they are 
administered are not pious, as Christ himself informs us, 'The scribes 
and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat, etc' Matt. 23 : 2. Therefore 
the Donatists, and all others who hold a different opinion, are con- 
demned." {Augsburg Confession, Art. viii.) 

7. Row are ministers who teach false doctrine to 
he regarded ? 

We must flee from their ministry. 

Matt. 7 : 15. Beware of false prophets. 

John 10 : 5. And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from 

Gal. 1:9. If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that 
ye have received, let him be accursed. 

8. Who is to preach the Gospel and administer the 
sacraments ? 

No one shall publicly teach or preach in the 


churcli, or administer the sacraments, without a 
regular call. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xiv.) 

9. How manifold is the call to the office of the min- 
istry ? 

Twofold. One an immediate or direct call, as 
was the call of the prophets and apostles, which 
was given by God himself without the employ- 
ment of any means, and which ceased with the 
prophets and apostles; the other, a mediate call, 
such as is now given by the church, which con- 
sists of the higher powers or government, the 
ministers of the church, and the remaining hear- 
ers, commonly called the people or laity. 

10. Is the call to the ministry then a 'prerogative of 
the whole church ? 

Yes ; according to the practice of the Apostles. 
For when a successor to Judas, the traitor, was 
to be chosen, this was done, not by the Apostles 
alone, but by the entire congregation of believers. 
Acts 1 : 21. The seven deacons were likewise 
elected by the people, and set before the Apostles 
for their confirmation. Acts 6 : 5. 

11. What therefore is a minister of the church? 
He is a person regularly called by the church, 

by divine injunction, who is to teach the word of 
God in its purity, and administer the sacraments 
according to the institution of Christ. 




1. Is there a church on earth ? 

Yes ; for I agree neither with those Epicureans 
who dream that God does not trouble himself 
about Immau affairs, nor with other sophists and 
scoffers, who say that the whole world is the 
church of God, and impiously assert, that every 
one can be saved in his own faith and religion. 
Nor do I fancy to myself a Platonic state, but 
maintain that there truly is a church, and that it 
shall remain, namely, some true believers and 
righteous people, who are scattered throughout 
the whole earth. 

" And we do not speak of a fancied church, which is nowhere to be 
found, but we say and we know of a truth, that this church in which 
saints live, truly does exist, and shall remain upon earth, that is to 
say, that there are some children of God, scattered throughout the 
world, in all kingdoms, islands, countries, and cities, from the rising 
to the setting of the sun, who have obtained the right knowledge of 
Christ and the Gospel." (Apology, Art. iv.) 

2. Have you a sure foundation upon which to base 
this assertion ? 

I have, namely, the promises of God, which 
cannot be shaken, e. g., Isa. 55 : 10, 11. " For as 
the rain cometh down from heaven, and returneth 
not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh 
it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to 
the sower and bread to the eater ; so shall ray word 
be that goeth forth out of my mouth ; it shall not 


return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that 
which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing 
whereto I sent it." Chap. 59:21. "As for me, 
this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord : 
My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which 
I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of 
thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, 
nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the 
Lord, from henceforth and forever." 

3. What does the icord Church denote ? 

It really means nothing else than an assembly. 
But in our Apostolic Symbol it is explained by 
the "communion of saints," i. e., such a commu- 
nity or congregation, in which there are saints, or 
still more significantly, " a holy congregation or 
community," but not a " communion of saints." 
(Larger Catechism.) 

4. Is the church one, or is it manifold ? 

It is one ; for thus says Paul: " One body and 
one spirit, even as yo, are called in one hope of 
your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one 
God and Father of us alh" Eph. 4:4-6. {Augs- 
burg Confession, Art. vii.) 

5. The church, then, cannot he distinguished into 
species or kinds ? 

According to its essence the true church is al- 
ways but one, and cannot be distinguished into 
species or kinds. But since many things happen 
to the true church in this life, a distinction may 
be made, in regard to that which is accidental 
and circumstantial, and even in regard to the 



external form, but this distinction is only acci- 

6. Will you not mention these distinctions ? 

Since the Holy Ghost has foretold that false 
prophets shall come, Matt. 24, the church is dis- 
tinguished into the true church and the false, or 
the church of the wicked. Ps. 26 : 5. "I have 
hated the congregation of evil doers; and will 
not sit with the wicked." 

7. Are the wicked, then, members of the true church ? 

They are indeed members of the church, ac- 
cording to the external communion of the signs 
of the church, that is, of the "Word, of the con- 
fession of faith, and of the sacraments, especially 
if they have not been excommunicated. But since 
the true church does not consist in the society 
of outward signs alone, like other organizations, 
but is a communion of faith and the Holy Ghost, 
in reference to which communion this church 
alone is called the body of Ohrist: it follows that 
those in whom Christ does not work are not mem- 
bers of Christ, and therefore not members of the 
true church. {Ajwlogy, Art. iv.) 

8. Ccm you not mention still another reason ? 
Yes; for inasmuch as the true church is the 

kingdom of Christ, distinct from the kingdom of 
the devil, and as it is certain that the wicked are 
in the power of the devil and members of his 
kingdom, as Paul teaches, when he says, Eph. 2 : 
2, that " the devil worketh in the children of dis- 


obedience :" it certainly follows that the wicked, 
since they belong to the kingdom of the devil, are 
no members of the true church. [A][>ology, Art. iv.) 

9. Is there still another distinction in the true 
church ? 

Yes, if we contemplate the true church in re- 
gard to place and condition ; for in this respect it 
is distinguished into the church triumphant, com- 
prehending the elect of God, who are already par- 
takers of life everlasting; and the church militant, 
which comprehends the elect, who are still on 
this earth, and under the banner of Christ, con- 
tend against the devil, the world, and the flesh. 
[Dr. Humiius.) 

10. Of the church irium'phant I will make no men- 
tion ; but in regard to the church militant I ask, whether 
it does not admit of yet another distinction ? 

Yes ; and this already follows from the above. 
For as regards the external communion of the 
signs and usages of the church, the church mili- 
tant is called visible, and includes all those who 
are members of the congregation of the called, 
whether they be pious or wicked, elect or repro- 
bate. But if we consider the church in so far as 
it is the communion of faith and the Holy Ghost, 
who dwells in the hearts of believers, it is called 
invisible and the real church of the elect. {Apology ^ 
Art. iv.) 

11. 3Iay the visible church be subdivided? 

Yes ; it may be divided into particular or local, 


and universal or catholic. A particular church 
is that which is found at a certain place only; 
the universal or catholic is that which is scattered 
throughout the whole earth, and comprehends 
within itself all men, who are called to the king- 
dom of Christ through the Word and sacraments. 
[Apology, Art. iv.) 

12. Is the churchy then, called catholic in this one 
respect f 

No ; it is also called catholic in regard to unity 
in faith and religion ; but in such a manner that 
those are called the catholic church, who, al- 
though they live, scattered to and fro, throughout 
the whole earth, yet, are of one mind in the doc- 
trine of the Gospel, having the same Christ, the 
same Holy Ghost, the same sacraments, the same 
faith, and the same pure and undefiled religion, 
whether their ceremonies differ or not. [Apology, 
Art. iv.) 

12>. If I understand you correctly, you maintain that 
the church is and is called one, especially in regard to 

Your conclusion is perfectly correct ; for agree- 
ment in the doctrine of the Gospel, and in the 
administration of the sacraments, is sufficient, for 
the unity of the church ; in such a manner, how- 
ever, as to comprehend in Ihis unity all who are 
linked together by the bond of faith and the Holy 
Ghost. [Apology, Art. iv.) 

14. But is not the unity of the church to be judged 
by likeness or similarity of usages and ceremonies ? 


N"o : for as the unity of the church is not de- 
stroyed by the circumstance that the days are 
naturally longer or shorter in one country, at one 
place than at another; the unity of the church in 
like manner is not destroyed, if such ordinances 
of men are regulated in different ways at diifer- 
eut places. " ^o church too will condemn another, 
because of a difference of ceremonies not en- 
joined by God, if mutual unity is only main- 
tained in doctrine and the articles thereof, and 
also in the right use of the holy sacraments, ac- 
cording to the well-known adage : 'Inequality of 
fastiijg does not sever the unity of the faith.' " 
{Apology, Art. i ; Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. x.) 

15. In the Creed we confess that we believe in a holy 
church ; in what does the holiness of the church consist ? 

It certainly does not consist in surplices, shaven 
heads, long robes, and other Romish ceremonies, 
invented without the authority of the Scriptures; 
but it consists partly in the holiness and righteous- 
ness of Christ, received by faith, and partly in the 
renewal and sanctification of the heart, through the 
Holy Ghost. The Apostle speaks of these two 
species of holiness, Eph. 5 : 25 : " Christ also loved 
the church and gave himself for it, that he might 
sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water 
by the Word, that he might present it to him a 
glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any 
such thiug, but that it should be holy and without 
blemish." {Smalcald Articles, xii; Apology, Art. iv.) 

16. If the church is holy in the manner just de- 



scribed^ then the acknowledgment which you made abovCy 
that there are many wicked and hypocrites in the church, 
must be false. 

Christ teaches plainly enough that there are 
constantly many wicked people and hypocrites in 
the church, in the parahle in which he compares 
the church to a net, wherein all sorts of fish 
are caught, whose assortment takes place on the 
shore, that is, at the end of the world. Matt. 13 : 17. 
But although these persons are members of the 
true and holy church, according to outward usages, 
yet they are not members of this church, as shown 
above. [Augsburg Confession, Art. viii ; Apology, 
Art. iv.) 

17. Be it so. Still, from the holiness of the church, 
it must Jollow that it cannot err. 

The Papists draw such a conclusion, and wrongly 
refer to their own church that which belongs to 
the true church, namely, that it is a pillar of the 
truth, and infallible. {Apology, Art. iv.) 

18. Can the church, then, err? 

Yes ; for although there are clear promises of 
God in Scripture, that the church is always to 
have the Holy Ghost, there are also serious threats 
in Scripture, that false teachers and wolves shall 
creep in, who, if this were possible, would even 
lead the elect into error. [Apology, Art. iv.) 

19. Will you not explain this more clearly ? 

It must certainly be maintained that the church, 
namely, the entire universal or catholic church, 


cannot err. For the latter has the sure promise 
of the Holy Ghost, that he will lead it into all 
truth. John 16 : 13. Moreovor, it has received 
the promise that the gates of hell shall not pre- 
vail against it, Matt. 16 : 18 ; and that it is to be a 
pillar and ground of the truth. 1 Tim. 3 : 15. But 
this or that local church, yea, even the greater 
part thereof, can err, and often has erred greatly. 
As for example, the church at the time of the 
deluge, at the time of the prophet Elijah, at the 
birth of Christ, and during the Arian heresy, 
which pervaded the whole church of the East. 

20. Why do you maintain that the enii/re catholic, 
universal church cannot err at one and the same time ? 

Because, if the entire catholic church should err, 
it then would also perish, and thus the gates of hell 
would prevail against it, contrary to the promise 
of Christ, Matt. 16 : 18, where he says : " Thou 
art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my 
church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail 
against it." 

21. Then you maintain that the church shcdl con- 
tinue to the end of the world ? 

I maintain this. For although the multitude 
of the wicked in the church, who desire to op- 
press it, is infinite, still it must be firmly main- 
tained, that the church will constantly remaiki, 
and that Christ will keep that which he has 
promised to the church, that he will forgive sins, 
answer prayers, and send the Holy Ghost, as he 
has promised, Matt. 16 : 18 : " The gates of hell 


shall not prevail against the church ;" and chapter 
28 : 20 : " Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the 
end of the world." For as the church is the 
body, of which Christ is the head, Christ would 
cease to be the head of his church on earth, if it 
could perish entirely. [Ajpology, Art. iv.) 

22. What are the characteristics hy which the true 
church can be recognized ? 

These two : the pure Word of God, and the 
right use of the holy sacraments. {Apology^ Art. 

23. Furnish proof in behalf of both characteristics 
from Holy Scripture. 

Of the first Christ says, John 10:16: "My 
sheep, hear my voice;" and John 8 : 31 : "If ye 
continue in my w^ord, then are ye my disciples 
indeed." John 15 : 3: " Now ye are clean through 
the Word which I have spoken unto you." The 
Apostle mentions the latter, characterizing the 
sacraments as seals, of the righteousness of faith. 
Rom. 4 : 11. 

24. Whaty therefore, is the true church f 

The true church is the assembly of all believ- 
ers, among whom the Gospel is preached in its 
purity, and the sacraments administered accord- 
ing to the Gospel. {Augsburg Confession, Art. vii.) 

X)r, the visible church in this life is the visible 
assembly of those who embrace the pure doctrine 
of the Gospel and use the sacraments aright, in 
which assembly the Son of God works and re- 
generates many unto everlasting life through the 


"Word of the Gospel and the Holy Ghost. Yet 
there are in this assembly many others, who are 
not holy, but who nevertheless agree in doctrine 
and the external confession. [3Ielanchihon.) 



1. What is Christian liberty ? 

It is the right according to which true believ- 
ers are freed through Christ from the bondage of 
sin, the tyranny of the devil, the curse of the 
law and everlasting death ; yea, even from the 
yoke of Levitical ceremonies and human tradi- 

2. Sow many degrees of Christian liberty are there ? 
Four : The first is, deliverance from the law 

and everlasting damnation. The second is the gift 
of the grace of God, that is, the efficacy of Christ 
in the believer, through the Gospel and the Holy 
Ghost, by which the new obedience is begun, 
and works pleasing to God are performed, of a 
free and willing mind. The third degree is, 
freedom from the Mosaic ceremonies and civil 
laws. The fourth finally is, freedom from human 
ordinances in the church; namely, that such or- 
dinances are not considered a ground of divine 
worship, of merit, or of unavoidable necessity, 


but that they can be neglected and omitted with- 
out sin. 

3. What are church traditions? 

They are human ordinances concerning cere- 
monies and external usages, which have been es- 
tablished for the maintenance of proper order and 
wholesome discipline in the church. 

4. Will you not m.ention a few such traditions? 
The usages which are observed in resfard to 

distinctions of times, of festivals, of dress, also of 
hymns, lessons for the different Sundays, and 
prayers, and a few other similar pious practices, 
are of this kind. 

5. Are you not of the opinion that such usages or 
church ordina7ices ynust be retained in the church ? 

It is certainly my opinion that those usages 
must be observed, which may be observed with- 
out sin, and which serve to promote peace and 
good order in the church, as certain celebrations, 
festivals, and the like. Yet the consciences of 
men dare not be burdened with these church or- 
dinances, as if such a service were necessary to 
salvation. [Augsburg Confession, Art. xv.) 

6. What danger could there be in regarding church 
ordinances or usages as worship, and as meritorious 
and necessary works? 

There would, indeed, be great danger in this. 
For, in the first place, it would obscure the doc- 
trine of grace, and of justification by faith, which 
is the chief part of the Gospel, and must be 


preached in the church more than all else, in 
order that faith may be placed far above all 
works, and that which belongs to faith alone not 
be ascribed to works. 

Then, too, the commandments of God are ob- 
scured, yea, even subverted by this. For if a 
person is of the opinion that human ordinances 
are matters of worship, then they are preferred 
to the commandments of God. And this is what 
the Lord Jesus censures in the Pharisees, when 
he says: "Full well yePreject the commandment 
of God, that ye may keep your own tradition." 
Mark 7:9; Matt. 15 : 6. 

Finally, this causes danger to consciences. For 
it is impossible to observe all human ordinances. 
If it should, therefore, be established that these 
must be kept, then men's consciences would in- 
deed be bound, as soon as such ordinances were 
not observed. And from this, despair must finally 
arise. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xv.) 

Concerning this, it is taught that all ordinances and traditions 
•which are made by men for the purpose of thereby reconciling God, 
and meriting grace, are opposed to the Gospel and the doctrine of 
faith ; therefore, monastic vows and other traditions, concerning food, 
days, etc., by means of which some suppose to merit grace, and 
render satisfaction for sin, are useless and contrary to the Gospel. 
^iigsbnrg Confession, Art. xv.) 

From this many dangerous errors have followed in the church. 

First. The doctrine of grace is obscured thereby, and the right- 
eousness of faith which the Gospel holds up to us so seriously, and 
■which presses so hard, that people should regard the merits of Christ 
high and dear, and know that faith in Christ is to be placed high and 
far above all works. Wherefore Paul also lays great stress upon this, 
removes the law and human traditions, that he may exhibit Christian 


righteousness to be something else than works of this kind, namely, 
faith, which believes that sins are graciously remitted on account of 
Christ. But this doctrine of Paul has been almost entirely sup- 
pressed by traditions, which have caused the opinion that by dis- 
tinctions of food and similar worship, it behooveth to merit grace and 
justice. In repentance no mention is made of faith, so much have 
these works of satisfaction been put forward. The whole of repent- 
ance seems to consist in this. 

Secondly. Such traditions have also darkened the commandments 
of God. For these traditions are placed far above the Word of God. 
The whole of Christianity was thought to be the observance of cer- 
tain festivals, rites, fasts, and habiliments. These observances were 
in possession of the most honorable title, because they were spiritual 
life and spiritual perfection. In the meantime the commands of God 
concerning one's calling bad no praWe, that the father reared his off- 
spring, the mother bare children, and the prince ruled the state ; 
these were thought to be worldly and imperfect works, and far inferior 
to these splendid observances. And this error greatly tormented pious 
consciences, who grieved that they were bound by an imperfect kind 
of life, in marriage, in government, or other civil functions, who ad- 
mired monks and persons of similar life, and falsely thought that the 
observances of these people were more pleasing to God. 

Thirdly. Traditions brought many dangers to consciences, be- 
cause it was impossible to observe all traditions, and yet men thought 
these observances a necessary worship. Gerson writes that many per- 
sons fell into despair, and that certain ones also put themselves to 
death, because they felt that they could not satisfy the traditions, and 
in the meantime heard no consolation concerning the righteousness of 
faith and grace. {Augsburg Cottfession, Art. xxvi. Compare Apol- 
ogy, Art. viii.) 

7. But does Holy Scripture remove all appearance 
of divine worship, of merit and necessity, from these 
human ordinances ? 

Yes. * 

Matt. 15:9. But in vain do they worship me, teaching for doc- 
trines the commandments of men. 

Verse 14. Not that which goeth into the mouth defiletb a man. 

Rom. 14 : 17. For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink. 

Coloss. 2 : 16. Let therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, 
or in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days. 


Verse 20. Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments 
of the world (see Col. 2 : 20) . touch not, taste not, handle not. 

1 Tim. 4 : 3. The Apostle calls the prohibition of meats the doc- 
trine of devils. 

8. If every ojnnion, thai human ordinances are of 
divine service and necessary, is annihilated, then it 
seems that all discipline and mortification of the flesh is 
at the same time removed. 

Not ill the least. For the mortification of the 
flesh is retained in our churches, not indeed the 
hj'pocritical mortification of the Papists, bat the 
true mortification. And this consists in tlio cross, 
namely, that Christians patiently bear the tribula- 
tions, and perform the labors which every calling 
brings with it, applying themselves to constant 
soberness and abstinence, and also fasting accord- 
ing to circumstances and necessities. And this 
must all be done, not in the opinion that it is 
meritorious, and making no distinction of meats 
and days, as if this were a necessary service of 

That our people are accused, as if they prohibited mortification 
and discipline, as Jovinian did, will appear quite differently from 
their writings. For they have always taught of the holy cross, that 
Christians are bound to suffer, and this is the right, serious, and not 
invented mortification. In addition, it is also taught, that every one 
is bound so to regulate himself in bodily discipline and bodily exer- 
cise and labors, as not to sin through satiety or sloth, not that he 
may merit grace by such works. This bodily exercise is not to be 
performed on certain fixed days, but is to be carried on constantly. 
Chiift .speaks of^his, Luke 21 : 34. " And take heed to yourselves, lest 
at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunken- 
ness." Also Matt. 17 :21- " Howbeit, this kind (of devils) goeih not 
out but by prayer and fasting. ' ' And Paul says, 1 Cor. 9:27. " But I 



keep under my body and bring it into subjection,'' in order to show that 
mortification is not to merit grace, but to keep the body in a fit con- 
dition for spiritual things, and the performance of the duties of one's 
calling. Therefore the fastings themselves are not condemned, but the 
traditions, which prescribe certain days, certain kinds of food, with 
danger to the conscience, as though such works were a necessary wor- 
ship. {Augsbiirg Confession, Art. xxvi.) 

And the mortification of the flesh or the old Adam, we teach in 
this manner, as announced by our Confession : that the true and not 
the feigned mortification takes place, when God breaks our will, and 
sends us the cross and afiliction, that we may learn to obey his will, as 

Paul says, Rom. 12 : 1. "I beseech you, that ye present your 

bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God." And these are 
true, holy mortifications, thus to learn to know, fear and love God, in 
trials. Besides these afflictions, which do not depend upon our will, there 
are also those bodily exercises, concerning which the Saviour declares, 
Luke 21 : 34. "And take heed to yourselves, lest at anytime your 
hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness." And Paul to 
the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 9 : 27. " But I keep under my body." These 
exercises are to take place, not because they are necessary services of 
God, by which one becomes pious before God, but that we may bridle 
our flesh, so that we may not become secure and idle through drunk- 
enness and surcharging of the body, and thus follow the temptation 
of the devil and the lusts of the flesh. But this fasting and mortifi- 
cation .should not take place at a fixed time only, but always. For it 
is the will of God, that we should always lead a temperate and sober 
life. (Apology, Art. viii.) 

9. But what do you reply concerning discipline ? 
Our clmrch is not averse to anything which 

serves to promote right discipline, good order, 
and the prosperity of the church ; for it observes 
most of the ordinances if they are only endurable 
and useful, and serve to promote order and pro- 
priety in the church. 

10. Would you not more distinctly exptain the char- 
acter of these ordinances or church customs^ in order thai 
I may attain to greater certainty concerning them ? 


In the first place they dare not be impious, but 
must be of such a nature that they may be re- 
tained without sin. If, therefore, certain customs 
are not in harmony with the Word of God, but 
conflict with it, they are to be rejected as impious. 
{Augsburg Coiifessmi, Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. X ; JEpiiome, Art. x.) 

Secondly. They must be useful, that is, they 
must contribute to peace and good order in the 
church, according to the command of the Apos- 
tle, 1 Cor. 14 ; 40. " Let all things be done de- 
cently and in order." 

In the third place, they dare not burden the 
conscience either by their multitude, or by the 
false opinion that they are meritorious, a service 
of God, or necessary to be done. 

11. I see that you make perfect adiaphora of such 
customs. Is every person, then, at liberty to omit or 
observe them ? 

By no means. For although such customs are 
by their nature left free, in so far as God has 
neither enjoined nor prohibited them, yet they 
become necessary, each in its kind, not as if ne- 
cessary to salvation, but for the purpose of main- 
taining order. [Form of Concord.) 

12. Explain this more clearly. 

Reason itself teaches this. For if the church 
in a rightful way arranges certain customs of 
worship, or prohibits that which by its very na- 
ture, is indeed left free and indiflerent, it must 


nevertheless be observed or omitted in this case, 
so that in this way all things in the church may 
be done decently and in order, and the people 
be kept in discipline. [Apology, Art. viii.) 

13. But what is to he done in case of persecution, 
and when the confession of our faith is involved ? Is 
it allowable in that case to adopt new adiaphora in 
favor of our opponents, or to abolish the old f 

Neither is allowable. For such customs are no 
longer to be reckoned among the adiaphora, which 
in any wise present the appearance of apostasy, 
or through which, in order to escaj)e .persecution, 
it is pretended, externally, at least, that our re- 
ligion does not ditfer much from the doctrine of 
our opponents. 

If such things are advanced under the name and appenrance of 
external adinphora, which (although they are painted with a different 
color) are nevertheless radically opposed to the Word of God, they 
are not to be considered adiaphora, but things prohibited by God. In 
like manner, also, such ceremonies must not be reckoned among the 
genuine adinphora, which have the appearance, or, in order to avoid 
persecution, feign the appearance, as if our religion, and that of the 
Papists, were not so far apart, or, as if the latter were not so strongly 
offensive to us; or, when such ceremonies have this design, and are 
retiuired and adopted, as if through and by them the two opposite 
religions were reconciled, and had become one body, or if an advance 
should be made towards Popery, and a departure from the pure doc- 
trine of the Gospel and true religion take place, or if this should 
conveniently fuUow therefrom. For in this case that which Paul 
writes, 2 Cor. 6 : 14, must prevail : " Be ye not unequally yoked to- 
gether with unbelievers: what communion halh light with darkness? 
Wherefore come out from among them find be ye separate, saiih the 
Lord," etc. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. x.) 

14. Then you maintain, that we dare not, in times 


of persecution, yield to our adversaries in regard to 
adiaphora f 

Certainly ; if at a time when the confession of 
the divine truth is demanded, the whole church 
and every individual Christian, especially the 
ministers of the Word, are bound frankly and 
openly to confess the genuine doctrine according 
to the Word of God, as well as everything which 
belongs to pure religion, not only in words, but 
also in deed : I maintain that we dare not yield 
to our adversaries at such a time, even in such 
things, which truly and in themselves are adia- 

We also believe, teach, and confess, that at a time of confession, 
■when the enemies of the Word of God desire to suppress the pure 
doctrine of the Gospel, the whole congregation of God, yea, every 
Christian, and especially the ministers of the Word, as those who 
stand at the head of the congregation, are bound, by authority of 
the Word of God, to confess whatever belongs to the whole of religion, 
freely and openly, not only in words, but also in deeds, and that in 
this case even in regard to such adiaphora, they must not yield to 
their adversaries, nor must they permit their enemies to force such adia- 
phora upon them by violence or fraud, which would weaken true wor- 
ship, and plant and confirm idolatry. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, 
Art. X.) 

15. Woidd you not give me firm reasons for this 
conviction ? 

The Apostle teaches thus. Gal. 5:1. " Stand 
fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ 
hath made us free, and be not again entangled in 
the yoke of bondage." 

And ch. 2 : 4. And that because of false brethren unawares brought 
in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ 
Jesas, that they might bring us into bondage : to whom we gave 



place by subjection, no, not for an hour ; that the truth of the Gospel 
might continue Tpith you. (See Form of Concord, as above.) 

16. But this matter does not appear to be so impor- 
tant, since it only concerns adiaphora ? 

And yet when matters are in such a condition, 
it no longer concerns external adiaphora, which 
by their nature and essence are and remain free, 
but it concerns the chief article of our Christian 
faitli, as the Apostle says : " That the truth of the 
Gospel might continue." For the truth of the 
Gospel is obscured and perverted, either as soon 
as adiaphora or new observances are by force and 
command imposed upon consciences for observ- 
ance, or when they are commanded to abolish the 
old; especially when this is done to confirm su- 
perstition, false doctrine, and idolatry, and to sup- 
press Christian liberty and pure doctrine. {Form 
of Concord.) 

17. In this manner the article concerning Christian 
liberty seems to be endangered ? 

Very much indeed; for as soon as the com- 
mands of men are forced upon the church as 
necessary, as if their omission were wrong and 
sinful. Christian liberty is already destroyed; the 
way is prepared for idolatry ; by means of which 
human commands are subsequentlj^ multiplied, 
and as a service of God, not only considered equal 
to the divine commands, but even placed above 
them. [Form of Concord.) 

18. Perhaps you have reasons in readiness to con- 
firm this f 


Yes ; for by such untimely yielding and recon- 
ciliation in external matters, before a Christian 
union in regard to doctrine has been efiected, 
idolaters are strengthened in their idolatry, and 
true believers on the other hand are grieved, of- 
fended, and made weak in their faith ; both of 
which every Christian is bound to avoid at the 
risk of his soul's salvation, as it is written: 
" Woe unto the world, because of offences." And 
also : " Whoso shall offend one of these little 
ones which believe in me, it were better that a 
millstone were hanged about his neck, and that 
he were drowned in the depth of the sea." Matt. 
18 : 6, 7. {Form of Concord.) 

But this saying of Christ must be especially 
considered : " Whosoever therefore shall confess 
me before men, him will I confess also before my 
Father which is in heaven." Matt. 10 : 32. [Form 
of Concord.) 



1. Who has the power and authority to institute sac- 
raments ? 

No man has the power and authority to promise 
grace: this belongs to God alone. But since the 
sacraments are seals of grace, they must have 
been instituted and originated by God alone. 


Hence eacraments which have been instituted 
without the divine command are no sure tokens 
of grace, although the people in their simplicity 
may to some extent be reminded and instructed 
by them. (Apology, Art. vii.) 

2. What are the sacraments generally considered ? 
The sacraments are usually explained to be: 

" Rites enjoined by God, and having added to 
them a divine assurance of grace." (Apology.) 

3. Can you not give another definition ? 

A sacrament is more correctly explained as a 
holy act instituted by God, consisting of an ele- 
ment or external sign, and of something heavenly ; 
by which act God not only seals the promise of 
grace, peculiar to the Gospel, that is, the gracious 
forgiveness of sins, but also through the elements 
truly imparts to every one, who partakes of the 
sacraments, lieavenly possessions, which he prom- 
ised at the institution of the several sacraments, 
and which are appropriated to believers for their 

4. How many kinds of sacraments are there ? 
Two; the one belonging to the Old, the other 

to the New Testament. The former had the 
shadow of future possessions, that is, the type 
of the body and blood of Christ; the latter, on the 
other hand, have the very essence, or the body 
itself. Coh 2:17; Heb. 10:1. 

5. What is required for the completeness of the sac- 
raments f 


The completeness of the sacraments consists 
as well in their essence as in their fruit and efii- 

6. In what does the essence or iJie substance of the 
sacraments consist f 

In two things ; namely, an earthly and a heav- 
enly. The earthly is the visible element, which in 
circumcision consisted in the cutting off of the fore- 
skin ; at the feast of the paschal lamb, in partaking 
of the lamb : in £aptism, on the other hand, it is 
the water, and in the Lord's Supper the bread 
and wine. The spiritual or heavenly thing is the 
bod}' and blood of Christ, which in the sacra- 
ments of the Old Covenant is only topically, but 
in the sacraments of the New Covenant essentially 

7. What describes the use and efficacy of the sacra- 

The Word, which is twofold in character, 
namely : 

(1.) The command, having reference to the form 
or act of the sacrament, as : eat, drink, baptize, 

(2.) The Word of promise, pledging forgiveness 
of sins, righteousness, and everlasting life, to 
every one, who uses this sacrament in true faith, 
e. g., "He that believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved." Moreover, " This is my body, which is 
given for you ; and this is the New Testament in 
my blood, which is shed for many for the remis- 
sion of sins." 


8. How many sacraments are there in the New Tes- 
tament ? 

Only two, if we take the word sacrament in 
its most special sense, namely, Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper. 

These, then, are true sacraments, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and 
Absolution. For these have the divine command and also the promise 
of grace, which really belongs to the New Testament, and is the New 
Testament. For the external signs are instituted, that by them the 
hearts of men«nay be moved, namely, by the Word and the external 
signs at the same time, that they may believe : if we are baptized, if 
we receive the body of the Lord, that God will be truly gracious to 
us through Christ, etc. {Apology, Art. vii.) "^^ 

9. Is not absolution also a sacrament f 

The Apology indeed enumerates absolution 
among the sacraments, but only figuratively 
speaking, and considering it, as to the resem- 
blance which it bears to the other sacraments, 
properly so called. 

10. What is this resemblance ? 

It consists in this, that absolution, as well as 
the sacraments properly so called, is : 

(1.) Commanded by God. 

(2.) Appropriates the promise of grace to every 
believer; and, 

(3.) Because in some places the external cere- 
mony of tne laying on of hands usually and cus- 
tomarily accompanies it. 

11. What, therefore, is wanting in absolution to pre- 
vent its being j^laced among the sacraments jproperly so 
called ^ 

Since absolution lacks a ceremony, ordained by 


God himself, and also wants an external ele- 
ment, which is required in every sacrament ; it 
appears, that absolution is only figuratively and 
m a wider sense called the sacrament of repent- 
ance. The Apology itself recognizes this, by saying 
(Art. vii) : " If one would call all things by the title 
of sacraments, which have the Word, command, 
and promises of God, one should also justly call 
prayer, almsgiving, the cross, and all conditions 
of men, ordained and sanctified by God, sacra- 

12. May not confirmation and extreme unction be 
called true sacraments ? 

ISo'j for confirmation and extreme unction are 
ceremonies, which are not ordained of God, but 
which have come down from the fathers of old, 
and which the church has never regarded as ne- 
cessary for salvation. They also lack the promise 
of grace, and therefore the definition of a sacra- 
ment does not apply to them. {Apology, as above.) 

13. Do you also maintain this concerning the order 
of the j)riesthood, which the Papists likewise reckon 
among the sacraments? 

I do; for although the ofiice of the ministry 
was instituted by God, and has glorious promises, 
yet this order, or the ministry of the Word, can 
only be called a sacrament figuratively, or in the 
general signification of the word, because the 
ceremony of ordination, by the laying on of hands, 
has neither the command nor the promise of 
God. {Apology.) 


14. What is your opinion concerning marriage? 
This also I do not consider to be a sacrament 

of the New Testament, proper!}^ speaking. For 
on the one hand it was not instituted in the New 
Testament, but in the beginning, when the human 
race was created. On the other hand, it is indeed 
enjoined of God, and enjoys divine promises, but 
these do not belong to the New Testament, nor 
do they affect onr salvation, but rather concern 
only the bodily existence. [Apology.) 

15. How can one use the sacraments profitably ? 
To a right use of the sacraments that faith is 

necessary, which believes the promises held out 
in the sacraments, i. e., which firmly believes that 
the things promised in the sacraments are com- 
municate-d and received. [Augsburg Confession, Art 
xiii; Apology, Art. vii.) 

16. The7i you are of the opinion that the sacraments, 
as external works and ceremonies, do not profit to sal- 
vation ? 

The opinion of the Papists, who maintain that 
the sacraments confer grace on the recipient, pro- 
vided he interposes no hindrance, even if he ap- 
proaches without any good emotion of the heart, 
merely on account of the external act and use, 
this opinion I unhesitatingly condemn. [Apology, 
Art. vii.) 

17. Will you not explain the opinio?i of the Papists 
more clearly ? 

They state that it is not necessary for a man 


to prepare himself in order to a salutary use of 
the sacrament; also that a good emotion is not 
required in the heart of one who receives the 
sacrament : but that by doing and receiving this 
work, that is, the sacrament, grace is conferred 
on those who make use of it, if there be only no 
hindrance interposed, that is, if only the guilt of 
a mortal sin, or the intention to commit such, 
do not exist. 

18. WJiat are your reasons for rejecting (he opinion 
of the Papists ? 

(1.) " It is a Jewish error to believe that we 
become just and holy by external ceremonies 
without a good emotion, i. e., without faith." 
{Ajjologij, Art. vii.) 

(2.) " Paul writes against this opinion and says, 
that Abraham became just before God, not by 
circumcision, but that circumcision was a sign to 
strengthen faith." [Apology, Art. vii.) 

(3.) "No one can take hold of the divine as- 
surance, but by faith alone. And the sacraments 
are external signs and seals of the promise. 
Therefore faith is necessary to their right use." 
{Apology^ Art. vii.) 

(4.) " The odious, ungodly doctrine of the opus 
opem^?^m, wherein they have taught, that if I make 
use of the sacraments, the doing of this work 
makes me pious before God, and obtains grace 
for me, although the heart has no good thought 
in regard to it, has caused an infinite number of 



abuses in the church, especially those manifold 
abominations of the mass." [Ajwlogy, Art. vii.) 

(5.) " And they cannot produce a letter from 
Holy Scripture and the Fathers, which would 
establish the opinion of the Papists. Yea, Au- 
gustine, in direct opposition to this, says : that 
faiih in the use of the sacrament, not the sacra- 
ment itself, makes us pious before God. And St. 
Paul : ' For with the heart man believeth unto 
righteousness.' Rom. 10 : 10." {Ajwlogi/, Art. Yii.) 



1. What is baptism ? 

Baptism is not mere water, but that water which 
is comprehended in God's command, and con- 
nected with his word. [Smaller Catechism.) 

2. What is that word of God ? 

Matt. 28 : 19. " Go ye therefore and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Mark 16 : 16. " He that believeth and is bap- 
tized shall be saved, but he that believeth not 
shall be damned." 

3. Is baptism necessary to salvation ? 
Certainly; on account of the divine injunction. 

" For what God has instituted and commanded, 
cannot be a vain thing, but must be exceedingly 


valuable, even if in appearance it should be more 
insignificant than a shadow." {Larger Catechism. 
Compare Augsburg Confession, Art. ix.) 

4. What does baptism confer or profit ? 

It works forgiveness of sins, delivers from 
death and the devil, and gives everlasting salva- 
tion to all who believe it, as the words and prom- 
ises of God declare. 

Secondly, since we know what baptism is, and how it is to be re- 
garded, we must also learn, why and for what purpose it was insti- 
tuted, that is, what it profits, gives, and works. 

This can be best understood from the words of Christ, namely: 
" He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved." Matt. 16 : 16. 
Therefore understand in all simplicity, that it is the power, work, use, 
fruit, and design of baptism, to save. For no one is baptized that he 
may be made a prince, but that he may be saved, as the words of in- 
stitution inform us. But it is well known that to be saved means 
nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and Satan, to come 
into the kingdom of Christ, and to live with him forever. (Compare 
Larger Catechism.) 

5. Does Holy Scripture teach the sa?ne concerning 
the benefit and efficacy of baptism ? 

Yes ; for St. Paul to Titus, chap. 3 : 5, says : 
"But according to his mercy he saved us, by 
the washing of regeneration and renewing of the 
Holy Ghost, which he also shed on us abundantly 
through Jesus Christ, our Saviour, that being- 
justified by his grace, we should be made heirs 
according to the hope of eternal life." 

And Christ himself confirms this, John 3:5: 
" Verily, verily, I say unto thee, except a man be 
born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 
into the kingdom of God." 

And St. Peter, 1 Epistle, chap. 3 : 21, says : 


"Baptism doth also now save ns (not the putting 
away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of 
a good conscience towards God) by the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ." 

6. Hoiu can water do so great things ? 

" "Water indeed does not do it, but the "Word 
of God, which accompanies and is connected with 
the water, and our faith, which relies on this 
"Word of God, connected with the water. For 
the water, without the Word of God, is simply 
water and no baptism ; but with the "Word of God 
it is a baptism, tViat is, a gracious water of life, 
and a washing of regeneration by the Holy Ghost, 
as St. Paul says to Titus, in the third chapter." 
{Smaller Catechism.) 

7. Then the water in baptism dare not be separated 
from, the Word of God? 

Tte water in baptism may be distinguished 
from the Word of God, but not separated from 
it. For this water is so sanctified by the Word 
of God, that it is none other than divine water: 
not as if this water in itself and of itself were 
better than every other water, but because the 
Word and command of God is added to it. If, 
therefore, the Word is separated from the water, 
it is not water other than that which is used in 
ordinary life; but if this Word is connected with 
it, then it is a sacrament and the baptism insti- 
tuted by Christ. 

From this learn to understand correctly, and be able to answer the 
question, What is baptism? — namely, thus : that it is not merely com- 


mon water, but a water comprehended in the Word and command of 
God, and thereby sanctiSed, that it is nought else than a divine waten 
not that the water in itself is nobler than other water, but that the 
Word and command of God is joined to it. 

It is therefore purely a piece of rascality and the mockery of the 
devil, when our new spirits, in order to revile baptism, now omit the 
Word and order of God from it, looking at nothing but the water 
drawn from the well, and then vent their spleen : What good shall a 
handful of water do to souls? Yes, my friend, who does not know 
that water is water, if pulling asunder is to prevail? But how dare 
you thus interfere with the arrangement of God, and tear away the 
best jewel, with which God has connected and set it, and which he 
will not have removed from it : for this kernel in the water is the 
Word and command of God, and the name of God, which is a treasure, 
greater and nobler than heaven and earth. Therefore comprehend 
the difference, that baptism is quite different from all other waters, 
not because of its natural essence, but because something nobler is 
joined to it. God himself honors it and aids it by his might and 
power. It is therefore not merely a natural water, but a divine, 
heavenly, holy, and blessed water, and deserving of all additional 
praise which can be given to it, solely on account of the Word of 
God, which is a heavenly, holy Word, which no one can praise suffi- 
ciently, for it has divine possessions and power : hence, it also derives 
its essence, being called a sacrament, as St. Augustine too has taught : 
"If the Word is joined to the element, or natural essence, it becomes 
a sacrament, that is, a holy and divine thing and sign." (^Larger 

8. Who are to be baptized ? 

Children, shortly after birth. {Augsburg Confes- 
sion, Art. ix; Apology, Art. vi; Larger Catechism.) 

9. Prove that little children are to be baptized. 

(1.) Christ has commanded all nations to be 
baptized, and therefore infants. 

(2.) The kingdom of Christ is found only where 
the Word and sacraments are found: "Except a 
man be born of water and of the Spirit, he can- 
not enter into the kingdom of God." John 3 : 5. 


If infants, therefore, are to be incorporated into 
the kingdom of Christ, this cannot be done other- 
wise than by means of baptism. 

(3.) The promise of salvation belongs to chil- 
dren also, according to the Word, Matt. 19 : 14; 
Mark 10 : 14 : " Suffer the little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not ; for of such is the 
kingdom of God." And Matt. 18 : 10, 14 : " Even 
so it is not the will of your Father which is in 
heaven, that one of these little ones should perish." 
Therefore the means by which the promise of sal- 
vation is applied and sealed, also appertain to those 
little ones. 

(4.) God himself has testified that the baptism 
of children is agreeable to him, by gathering a 
congregation from the human race, throughout 
so many centuries, during which this sacrament 
was applied to children ; and this he has done by 
giving the Holy Ghost to those who were bap- 
tized, and by finally saving the greater part of 

(5.) Baptism has taken the place of circum- 
cision. Col. 2 : 12. Just as circumcision was ap- 
plied to children as the sign of the covenant, so 
also must baptism be used. {Apology, Art. iv; 
Larger Catechism.) 

10. Then you maintain that all baptized children 
are truly horn again and received into the grace of 
God ? 

Yes, this I maintain ; for thus saith the Apos- 
tle : " Know ye not that so many of us as were 


baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his 
death ?" Rom. 6 : 13. And, 

" For as many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ, have put on Christ." Gal. 3 : 27. 

Yes, Christ himself says : " He that believeth 
and is baptized, shall be saved." Mark 16 : 16. 
[Augsburg Confession, Art. ix.) 

11. In this way you seem to maintain that baptized 
children truly believe in Christ ? 

Certainly ; for that children, through baptism, 
are presented with true faith by the power of the 
Holy Ghost, already appears from the fact that 
they are born again. But regeneration cannot 
take place without faith. And Christ himself 
also distinctly assures us that the little children 
believe in him. Matt. 18 : 6. 

12. May adults also be baptized ? 

Yes ; as many as come over to our church and 
are able to make a confession of the true faith. 

13. And do you maintain, that all baptized adults 
are born again, in like manner as children are ? 

Here a distinction must be made : for if the 
adults truly believe in their hearts, what they 
confess with their lips, they receive a truly salu- 
tary baptism ; but if they harbor craft or hypoc- 
risy, then they indeed receive baptism in full, 
according to its essence, but not in a salutary 
manner. For without faith baptism profits noth- 
ing; and only faith makes man worthy to receive 
this salutary and divine water profitably. 


In the third place, since we have the great benefit and efficacy of 
baptism, let us further see, who the person is that receives what bap- 
tism gives and profits ; this is again expressed most exactly and clearly, 
just in these words: "He that believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved." That is, faith alone makes the person worthy to receive this 
divine water profitably. For inasmuch as this is prescribed and 
promised in these words, accompanying the water, it cannot be other- 
wise received, than by faith of the heart. Without faith it is of no 
use, although it is of itself a divine, superabundant treasure. This 
one word, "He that believeth," is, therefore, possessed ^of so much 
power as to exclude and repel all works, which we can do, in the 
opinion that we shall thereby obtain and merit salvation. For it has 
been decided that whatever is not of faith, adds nothing, neither 
does it receive anything. (Larger Catechism.) 

14. May ba2)iism be repeated? 

It may not; for the baptism is and always will 
remain true, and its essence unchanged. For that 
which God has once ordained cannot be subverted 
or abolished by the unbelief of man. 

It is therefore determined that baptism is always right, and will 
remain in its full essence, even if only one human being were bap- 
tized, even though he had not the true faith, for the order and Word 
of God cannot be moved or changed by men. {Larger Catechism.) 

15. But if the person bajotized should fall from the 
grace of God, must not the baptism then be repeated ? 

No; for even if one were to lose the salutary 
fruit of baptism by his sins, he can afterward re- 
turn, if he mortify and drown the old man by 
repentance. But it is not necessary that the water 
should again be applied to him. [Larger Catechism.) 

16. How is this ? 

Because, if such a one were to be immersed 
in water a hundred times, he would only receive 
one baptism, namely, that which is the covenant 
of a good conscience with God. For this cove- 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 177 

nant continues unchanged on the part of God. 
If a person, therefore, fall from the grace of 
God, after being baptized, but return by means 
of true contrition and repentance, the baptism 
once received immediately begins to be salutary 
to him. 

17. In the act of baptism what does the immersion 
into water and the drawing out from it signify ? 

It signifies that the old Adam is to be drowned 
in us by daily contrition and repentance, and that 
he is to die with all his sins and evil lusts, and 
again come out and arise a new man, who is to 
live forever in righteousness and holiness before 
God. For St. Paul to the Romans, in the sixth 
chapter, says : " We are buried with him by bap- 
tism into death, that like as Christ was raised up 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, even 
so we also should walk in newness of life." 
{Smaller Catechism; compare Larger Catechism.) 


OF THE lord's SUPPER. 

1. What is the Lord's Supper ? 

It is a sacrament of the New Testament, insti- 
tuted by Christ himself, in which the true body 
and the true blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, in 
and under the bread and wine, are truly commuui- 


cated to all who eat and drink, and the promise 
of grace is applied and sealed to every believer. 
(See Smaller Catechism, Larger Caiechism.) 

2. On what ground does this explanation rest ? 
The words of institution tell us this: Matt. 26 : 

27, 28; Mark 14 : 22-24; Luke 22 : 19, 20. And 
the words of St. Paul, 1 Cor. 10 : 16; 11 : 23-25. 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, in the same night in which 
he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had 
given thanks, he brake it and gave it to his dis- 
ciples, saying : " Take, eat, this is my body, which 
is given for you. This do in remembrance of me." 
After the same manner also, he took the cup, 
when he had supped, gave thanks, and gave it to 
them, saying: "Drink ye all of it; this cup is 
the New Testament in my blood, which is shed 
for you and for many, for the remission of sins ; 
this do as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of 
me." {Smaller Catechism.) 

3. Are these words to be understood in a real and 
literal or in a figurative sense? 

We believe, teach, and confess, that the words 
of the Testament of Christ are not otherwise to 
be understood, than in their literal sense, so that 
the bread does not signify the absent body, nor 
the wine the absent blood, but that it is truly, 
because of the sacramental union, the body and 
blood of Christ. {Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. 

4. Do not the Calvinists also understand the loords 
of institution in the same sense ? 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 179 

They do not; for tliey do not understand the 
words of institution, "Eat, this is my body," 
really, as they read, according to the letter, but 
figuratively, so that to eat the body of Christ, means 
nothing else than to believe in Christ, and the 
body of Christ, nothing else than a symbol, that 
is, a sign or figure of the body of Christ, which 
body is not in the Eucharist on earth, but only in 
heaven. In like manner they maintain that the 
word is must be understood sacramentally, that 
is (according to their explanation), as merely sig- 
nifying, and they directly deny that the thing is so 
connected with the sign, that the body of Christ 
is now also present upon earth, although in an in- 
visible and incomprehensible manner. [Form of 
Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

5. But whence do you prove that the words of insti- 
tution are to be understood in their real, literal sense ? 

My first proof I take from this : that our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ (concerning whom this 
serious command was given to all men from 
heaven, Him ye shall hear) is not an ordinary 
man or an angel, nor merely true, wise, and pow- 
erful, but that he is Eternal Wisdom and Truth 
itself and Almighty God. He therefore knew 
very well what and how to speak, and he can also 
powerfully carry out and put into eft'ect, whatever 
he speaks and promises ; according to his word : 
" Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words 
shall not pass away." Luke 21 : 33. {Form of Con- 
cord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 


6. Can you not give another jproof? 

Yes ; " for when our true and almigbty Lord 
Jesus Christ, after the Last Supper, wheu he was 
about to begin his bitter suffering and death, in- 
stituted this highly revered sacrament of the 
church, very thoughtfully and seriously, he cer- 
tainly had at heart that which was greatest and 
of most importance, when he spoke these words 
of institution. We are therefore bound not to in- 
terpret them as metaphorical, figurative, foreign 
expressions, but to receive the words as they stand, 
in their proper, manifest sense." [Form of Con- 

7. Can you mention a third proof? 

Yes ; and this is furnished by all the circum- 
stances attending the institution of the Lord's 
Supper. "For since Christ gives this command 
concerning the eating of his body, and the drink- 
ing of his blood, at the table, during the supper, 
there can be no doubt but that he speaks of true 
natural bread, and of true natural wine, and of 
eating and drinking with the mouth." {Form of 

" Then, too, Christ himself takes precaution, 
that no metonymy, that no change in the mean- 
ing of the word body, that no sign or figure, or 
the power or benefits of the absent body of Christ, 
should be understood. For he clearly speaks of 
his true, essential, and substantial body, which he 
has given into death for our sins, and of his true 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 181 

essential blood, ■which he has shed for us on the 
cross." [Form of Concurd.) 

8. Adduce still a fourth proof. 

Concerning the consecrated and proffered 
bread, all the three Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, 
and Luke, as also St. Paul, who received it after 
the ascension of Christ, unanimously repeat, pre- 
cisely in the same manner and in the same words 
and syllables, without anj^ figure or change, these 
clear, firm, and true words of Christ, " This is my 
body." {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

9. I recognize the clearness of these reasons, and 
you may noio continue and show ivherein the nature 
of this sacrament consists. 

We confess, in the words of Irenseus, that there 
are two things in the sacrament, an earthly, 
namely bread and wine, and a heavenly, namely 
the body and blood of Christ. 

10. Then you maintcdn that the body and, blood of 
Christ are truly present with the bread and wine? 

Certainly; for not the elements alone, but the 
elements sacramentally united with the heavenly 
matter, and essentially present, compose the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper on earth. (See Augs- 
burg Confession, Art. x; Form of Concord, Art. 

11. Does the Augsburg Confession teach this also? 

Yes; for we read in the 10th Article: "Con- 
cerning the Holy Sujiper of the Lord, our 
churches teach that the true body and blood of 



Christ is truly present under the form of bread 
and wiue in the Eucharist, and is there 'communi- 
cated and received. Therefore, the contrary doc- 
trine is rejected. And more plainly the Apology 
of the above. Art. iv." We confess that the body 
and blood of our Lord Christ is truly present in 
the supper, and is proffered and received with the 
visible things, bread and wine. (Compare Form of 
Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

12. I would now like you to prove by clear reasons 
that the body and blood of Christ are truly present on 
earth loith the bread and ivine in this sacrament. 

The first and chief reason is given by the words 
of institution themselves. For Christ says ex- 
pressly: "Take, eat, this is my body; drink ye 
all of it, for this cup is the J^ew Testament in my 
blood." To this word, we steadfastly and firmly 
hold, and maintain that Christ does not otherwise 
than he has promised. [Larger Catechism; Form 
of Concord, Art. vii.) 

13. Will you not meyition the other reasons? 

The second reason is, that when Paul says the 
bread is the communion of the body, and the wine 
the communion of the blood of Christ, it would 
follow that the bread is not the communion of the 
body of Christ, but only of the spirit of Christ, 
and the wine not the communion of the blood of 
Christ, but only of the spirit of Christ, if the body 
and blood of the Lord were not truly present. 
{Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 183 

Then, too, this repetition, corroboration, and explanation of the 
words of Christ, which is given by St. Paul, 1 Cor. 10, must with all 
diligence and seriousness be regarded as a special, clear testimony of 
the true essential presence and distribution of the body and blood of 
Christ in the Holy Supper. Since he writes thus : " The cup of bless- 
ing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? 
The bread, which we break, is it not the communion of the body of 
Christ ?" From which we clearly learn that not only the cup which 
Christ blessed in the first supper, and not only the bread which Christ 
brake and distributed, but also that which we break and bless, is the 
communion of the body and blood of Christ, so that all those who eat 
this bread, and drink of this cup, truly receive and become partakers 
of the true body and blood of Christ. For if the body and blood of 
Christ were not truly and essentially present, but only present and 
partaken of according to their power and efficacy, the bread would 
have to be called, not a communion of the body, but of the spirit, 
power, and benefits of Christ. And if Paul were speaking only of the 
spiritual communion of the body of Christ by faith, as the Sacramen- 
tarians pervert this verse ; he would not say this bread, but the spirit 
or failk is the communion of the body of Christ. But he says : "The 
bread is the communion of the body of Christ, that all who partake of 
the blessed bread also become partakers of the body ;" he can there- 
fore not be speaking of a spiritual, but of a sacramental and oral par- 
taking of the body of Christ, common to pious and wicked Christians. 

Thirdly, the four reasons with which Luther most clearly manifests 
and proves the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's 
Supper. {Form of Concord.) 

14. Will you not mention these ? 

The first is this article of our faith : Jesus Christ 
is essential, natural, true, perfect God and man in 
one person, inseparate and undivided. 

The second : Because the right hand of God is 

The third : Because the Word of God is neither 
false nor fallacious. 

The fourth : Because God hoth possesses and 
knows the various modes of beiug at a certain 


place, and not merely the one of wlii eh the fanat- 
ics dream, called the local by philosophers, [Form 
of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

15. If the body and blood of Christ are truly pres- 
ent in the sacrament, in inhat ivay are they distributed 
and received with the bread and loine ? 

This certainly does not take place by transub- 
stantiation, as taught by the Papists, according to 
which the consecrated or blessed bread and wine 
in the Holy Supper, entirely lose their substance 
and essence, and are changed into the substance 
and essence of the body and blood of Christ, so 
that merely the bare form of bread and wine, or 
the extra-essential remains, without the essence. 
(Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

Moreover, it does not take place by consnb- 
stantiation, or a local inclusion of the body and 
blood of Christ in the bread and wine; nor by 
means of a union, Avhich would continue even 
after the celebration of the sacrament had been 
finished. On the contrary it takes place by means 
of the sacramental union, which is efiected by the 
power of Christ's promise, so that when the bread 
is distributed, the body of Christ is also at the 
same time truly present and distributed, and that 
when the wine is distributed, the blood of Christ 
is jjlso truly present and distributed at the same 
time. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

16. What then is the sacramental union ? 

It is an operation of divine power, by which 
two difierent things, namely, an earthly, the bread 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 185 

and wine, and a heavenly, the body and blood of 
Christ, in the true use of the Supper, which con- 
sists in eating and drinking, are united to one 
another sacramentally, that is, in a supernatural 
and inexpressible manner, and according to the 
institution of Christ are at the same time commu- 
nicated and received. 

17. Bui why and in what sense does our clmrch use 
the words in, with, and under the bread and wine ? 

In the first place, in order that the Papistical 
doctrine of transubstantiation may thereby be 
rejected. In the next place, in order to indicate 
the sacramental union of the sign, with that which 
is signified, that is, of the earthly with the heav- 
enly. Finally, as a testimony, that the words of 
Christ, This is my body, must be received and 
understood simply as the words read. [Form of 
Co7icord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

18. Can the nature and attributes of the sacramental 
formuloB be recognized from this? 

Yes ; for the sacramental formulee are not of 
this kind; that the name of the object, perceived 
by the senses, is by them given to the earthly 
element only by virtue of a certain similarity or 
figure, so that the one word only stands for the 
other, as the Calvinists dream ; but they are of 
this kind, that when by means of the sacramental 
union of the earthly element with the heavenly, 
that which is received with the bread, is called 
the body of Christ, and that which is drunk with 


the wine, is called the blood of Christ ; this is done 
with the most veritable and essential appellation. 
Such sacramental formulae are : This is my body, 
This is my blood; further: The bread is the com- 
munion of the body of Christ, The wine is the 
communion of the blood of Christ. [Form of Con- 
cord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

19. Do you maintain that the body and blood of 
Christ in the sacrament is received with the bodily 
mouth ? 

I believe and firmly maintain, "that the body 
and blood of Christ is not only received spiritually 
by faith, but also orally, yet not in a Capernaitic, 
but in a supernatural, heavenly manner, because 
of the sacramental union with the bread and 
wine." {Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. vii.) 

20. Then you acknoioledge, so far as I can see, a 
double eating of the body of Christ ? 

Yes; for there is one eating of the body of 
Christ, which is spiritual, whereof Christ treats 
specially, John 6, which does not take place other- 
wise than with the spirit and faith, in the preach- 
ing and consideration of the Gospel, as well as in 
the Holy Supper, and which is of itself useful and 
salutary, and necessary to all Christians, at all 
times, for their salvation. For such spiritual eat- 
ing is nothing else than faith in Christ. [Form of 
Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

21. What is the other eating of the body of Christ ? 
The other eating of the body of Christ is oral 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 187 

or sacramental, when iu the Holy Supper the true 
essential body and blood of Christ are orally re- 
ceived and partaken of by all who eat the blessed 
bread and drink the blessed wine in the Lord's 
Supper. [Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

22. Can this sacramental eating also be called a 
spiritual eating ? 

It can be so called, but not in the sense in 
which the Sacramentarians wduld have it, namely, 
as if in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, only 
the spirit or the power of the absent body of 
Christ, and his merit, were present, and received 
by believers ; but by the word spiritual, we un- 
derstand the supernatural, heavenly manner, in 
which Christ is present in the Lord's Supper. 
And by this word we reject the Capernaitic no- 
tion of a gross, carnal presence. [Forrti of Con- 
cord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

In explaining this controversy it must first be remarked, that there 
are two kinds of Sacramentarians. Some are gross Sacramentarians, 
who express in clear words what they hold in their hearts : that there 
is nothing more present in the Lord's Supper than bread and wine, 
distributed and received with the mouth. But the others are crafty 
and the more injurious, who in part speak most speciously in our 
words, and pretend that they too believe a real presence of the true, 
essential, living body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, that 
this, however, takes place spiritually by faith, and who, under these 
specious words, retain their first gross opinion, namelj', that there 
is nothing present and received with the mouth in the Lord's Supper 
but bread and wine. For spiritual with them means nothing but the 
spirit of Christ, or the power of.his absent body, and his merit, which 
is present ; but they believe that the body of Christ is in no manner 
or way present, but only above in the highest heaven, to which we 
are to raise ourselves with the thoughts of our faith, and that there, 


but not in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper, we are to seek 
such body and blood. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

23. Are not there two specks of eating enjoined in 
the Lord's Supjjer? 

Yes ; as to the pious or believing, but not as 
to the impious or unbelieving. For believers re- 
ceive the sacrament not only sacramentally or 
with the mouth, but also spirituall}- ; that is, they 
receive its salutarj^ fruit by faith, as a sure pledge 
and seal that their sins are forgiven. But the 
wicked are without this spiritual and salutary 
eating, because of their unbelief, and receive only 
sacramentally, that is, with the mouth, the same 
body and blood of Christ, but receive it unto 
judgment and condemnation. (Form of Concord, 
Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

24. Prove that the body and blood of ^ Christ are 
received, ivith the bodily mouth. 

Christ's words of institution expressly teach 
this. For since he, at the table, and during the 
supper, extends natural bread and natural wine 
to his disciples, which he calls his true body and 
his true blood, saying: "Eat and drink;" such 
command cannot because of the circumstances 
be understood otherwise than of oral eating and 
drinking, not however of a gross, carnal Caper- 
naitic, but of a supernatural, incomprehensilile 
eating. (Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii. Com- 
pare F. C, Epitome, Art. vii.) 

25. Can you furnish still another proof? 

Yes; for St. Paul, 1 Cor. 10 : 16, says, "The 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 189 

cup of blepsing, which we bless, is it not the com- 
munion of the blood of Christ? The bread which 
we break, is it not the communion of the body 
of Christ?" whereby he most clearly teaches oral 
eating. For if Paul were only speaking of a spir- 
itual communion of the body of Christ by faith, 
as the Sacramentarians pervert this passage, he 
would not have said the bread, but the spirit or 
faith is the communion of the body of Christ. But 
as he says, the bread is the communion of the body 
of Christ, and that all who partake of the blessed 
bread, also partake of the body of Christ, he 
therefore cannot be speaking of a spiritual, but 
of a sacramental or oral reception of the body of 
Christ, common to pious and wicked Christians. 
[Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

26. Do the umoorihy, luicked, and unbelieving, like- 
wise eat and drink the holy body and the holy blood of 
Christ ivith the mouth ? 

St. Paul expressly teaches that not only godly, 
pious, and beHeving Christians, but also the un- 
worthy, wicked hypocrites, receive the true body 
and blood of Christ orally in the sacrament, and 
grievously sin against the body and blood of Christ, 
b^' their unworthy eating and drinking. 1 Cor. 
11 :-27. {Form of Concord, Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

27. Before you prove this, show who are worthy 
and who are unworthy. 

Those are unworthy who go to the sacrament 
without true penitence and sorrow, and without 
true faith, and the good resolve to better their 


lives. " But believers in Christ are worthy, and 
not only these, but also those weak in the faith, 
the timid troubled Christians, who are frightened 
at heart because of the greatness and multitude 
of their sins, and think that they, in their great 
impurity, are unworthy of this noble treasure and 
of the benefits of Christ, and who feel and lament 
the weakness of their faith, and have the heartfelt 
desire to serve God with a stronger, more joyous 
faith, and in purer obedience." [Form of Concord^ 
Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

28. Noio prove that all the unworthy receive orally 
the body of Christ in this sacrament. 

This is confirmed by the Apostle, 1 Cor. 11 : 
27, 29, when he says : " Wherefore whosoever 
shall eat this bread and drink this cup of the 
Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and 
blood of the Lord. For he that eateth and 
drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damna- 
tion to himself, not discerning the Lord's body." 
In these words the Apostle clearly testifies, that 
those who eat unworthily of this bread (which is 
the communion of the body of Christ) and drink 
unworthily of the blessed cup (which is the com- 
munion of the blood of Christ), not only sin 
against bread and wine, not only against signs or 
symbols and figures of the body and blood, but 
become guilty of the very body and blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, which they there dishonor, 
abuse, and put to shame. [Form of Concord, Sol. 
Dec, Art. vii.) 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 191 

29. What is your opinion of the ivords of institu- 
tion? Have they the power to make the sacrament f 

As to the coasecration, we believe, teach, and 
confess, that no work of man, or speaking on the 
part of the minister, creates such presence of the 
body and blood of Christ in the Holy Supper, but 
that this is to be ascribed solely and alone to the 
Almighty power of our Lord Jesus Christ, whose 
true and omnipotent words, spoken at the first 
consecration, were powerful not only in the first 
Supper, but continue, are valid, work and still 
are powerful, so that Christ himself everywhere, 
where his institution is observed, and his words 
repeated over the bread and wine, and the conse- 
crated bread and wine distributed, even to-day is 
still efiicieut, when these words are repeated, by 
virtue of the first institution. [Form of Concord^ 
Epitome^ Art. vii ; Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

30. Then the words of institution may he entirely 
omitted in the use of this sacraynentf 

They dare by no ineans be omitted, but must 
be spoken publicly, as it is written : " The cup of 
blessing, lohich we bless, is it not the communion 
of the blood of Christ?" and this consecration 
takes place by the repetition of Christ's words. 
Besides, we must obey the command of Christ, 
which says: "This do;" what Christ himself did 
in the Holy Supper dare not therefore be omitted. 

Thirdly, the words of Christ must also be re- 
peated for this reason, that the faith of those hear- 
ing, concerning the essence and fruit of this sac- 


rament,maybe awakened, strengthened, and made 
sure by the words of the Testament of Christ. 

And iinally, that the elements, bread and wine, 
may be consecrated or blessed unto this holy use, 
and separated from other elements of this kind. 
[Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. vii; Sol. Dec, 
Art. vii.) 

31. What do you think of the Romish administra- 
tion of the sacrament under but one form ? 

I maintain that a great and fearful robbery and 
sacrilege is committed where but one form of the 
sacrament is given to laymen, and where, contrary 
to the express words of the Testament of Christ, 
they are forbidden the cup and despoiled of the 
blood of Christ. [Form of Concord, Epitome, Art. vii. 
Compare Augsburg Confession, Art. xxii ; Smalcald 
Articles, Part iii. Art. vi.) 

32. Give your reasons for this assertion. 

In the first place, " Christ has instituted both 
forms, not only for a part of the church, but for 
the whole church. If Christ, then, has instituted 
the whole sacrament for the whole church, why 
do they take one form from the church ? Why 
do they change the order established by Christ ?" 
[Apology, Art. x.) 

Christ, too, has clearly commanded that all 
shall drink of the cup. Matt. 26 : 27. And in 
order that no one might attack these words, and 
comment on them; as if it belonged solely to the 
priests, Paul informs us, 1 Cor. 11 : 24 Jf., that the 

OF THE lord's SUPPER. 193 

entire assembly of the Corintliian church used 
both forms. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xxii.) 

33. Do the Papists cherish other errors concerning 
this sacrament? 

Yes; the first abomination is the figment of 
transubstantiation or the conversion of the sub- 
stance of the bread into the substance of the body, 
and of the substance of the wine into the sub- 
stance of the blood of Christ. 

The second abomination is that they imagine 
that the body of Christ is truly present in a sac- 
ramental manner under the form of bread, even 
outside of the act of the Holy Supper ; whilst 
nothing can be a sacrament, apart from God's 
ordained command and instituted use, which con- 
sists in eating and drinking. 

The third abomination is, that the bread (which 
they imagine has been changed into the body of 
Christ) is inclosed in the pyx, in order that it may 
be ostentatiously adored. 

The fourth abomination is, that they change 
the sacrament of the altar into a real sacrifice, 
namely, an atoning sacrifice, for the living and 
the dead, which they call mass. [Form of Concord, 
Sol. Dec, Art. vii.) 

34. What is the design and use of the institution of 
the Lord's Siqyper ? 

It was instituted in order that the faith of those 
who use the sacrament, might be reminded of the 
benefits which it receives at the hands of Christ, 



and that it might encourage and comfort affrighted 
consciences. For to remember Christ is to think 
of his benefits, and to beheve that they are truly 
imparted to us. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xxiv.) 

35. Should the sacrament be used frequently ? 

Yes ; for in the first place, we have the words 
of Christ, "This do in remembrance of me;" 
which words are a command. {Smaller Catechism.; 
Larger Catechism.) 

Again, the oftener you go to the Lord's Supper, 
the more your heart is iufiamed with the love of 
God. {Smaller Catechism ; Larger Catechism.) 

In the third place, there is also a promise added 
to the comnand, which is to allure and impel us 
most strongly to the frequent use of this sacra- 
ment; for these are the gracious and lovely words : 
" This is my body, which is given for you; this 
is my blood, which is shed for you, for the remis- 
sion of sins." {Smaller Catechism; Larger Cate- 

Finally, the feeling of our unworthiness and 
misery is to enkindle the desire for this sacra- 
ment. For in it you bring yourself unto Christ, 
that he may refresh, comfort, and strengthen you. 
{Smaller Catechism; Larger Catechism.) 



1. What is a sacrifice properly so called? 

"A sacrifice is a ceremony or work, com- 
manded by God, and rendered as an honor to 
Lira." [Apology^ Art. xii.) 

2. What is the difference between a sacrifice and a 
sacrament ? 

" A sacrament is a ceremony or work, whereby 
God gives us that, which the divine promise 
attached to this ceremony, offers :" a sacrifice, 
on the other hand, as has been ah-eady said, is 
a work, whereby we bring something to God. 
[Apology, Art. xii.) 

3. How many kinds of sacrifices are there ? 
There are only two kinds of sacrifices : " The 

one is an atoning sacrifice, by which satisfaction 
is rendered for guilt and punishment, the anger of 
God appeased and conciliated, and forgiveness 
of sins obtained for others. Only one such sac- 
rifice has been made in the world, and that but 
once; it also can not and ought not to be re- 
peated, namely, the sacrifice of Christ's death. 
Heb. 7:27; 10:12. 

The other kind is the thank-ofiering or eucharis- 
tic sacrifice, by which forgiveness of sins or atone- 
ment is not procured; on the contrary, it is ren- 
dered by those who are already reconciled, in 


giving thanks for the forgiveness of sins and other 
gifts and tokens of grace, which they have re- 
ceived. In the Old Covenant the trespass offer- 
ing, meat offering, thank-offering, first fruits and 
tithes were sacrifices of this kind. [Apology, Art. 

4. Were not some of the Leviiical sacrifices also 
propitiatory sacrifices ? 

Yes ; but they were so called because of their 
significance, not that they by their power or of 
themselves merited forgiveness of sins ; but partly 
because they were types of the promised, pure, 
only and true expiatory sacrifice, the Messiah, — 
partly because they merited the remission of sins 
according to the righteousness of the law ; so that 
those for whom they were made were not banished 
from the congregation of the people of Israel. 
And in this ecclesiastical respect they became ex- 
piatory sacrifices for sins and trespasses, and were 
called burnt ofi'erings. [Apology, Art. xii.) 

5. Do these Leviiical sacrifices of propitiation still 
take place in the Church of God ? 

They do not; for since the Levitical law had to 
cease with the revelation of the Gospel, these 
sacrifices also ceased. Or rather, they were not 
true expiatory sacrifices, because the Gospel was 
to present the true propitiation. 

6. Are the thank-offerings only of one kind? 

No. For some were only external sacrifices, as 
described in the book of Leviticus, which have 


long since become antiquated. Others, however, 
are spiritual thank-offerings, and these are com- 
mon to both Testaments, and will continue to the 
end of the world ; to which kind belong the sac- 
rifices of praise, as, the preaching of the Gospel, 
prayer, thanksgiving, confession, and the cross 
borne by saints; in short, all the works of the 
saints. And concerning these spiritual sacrifices, 
saith Malachi, ch. 1 : 11 : 

For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the 
same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles ; and in every place 
incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering. 

And St. Peter, 1 Ep. 2 : 5, 9 : 

Ye are a royal priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable 
to God by Jesus Christ. {Apology, Art. xii.) 

7. Did the Levitical sacrifices merit anything^ ex< 
O'pere operator i. e., merely by being made, without re- 
spect to those sacrificing ? 

No. For the prophets of the Old Testament 
themselves condemned the opinion, that their sac- 
rifices already rendered satisfaction, and they de- 
manded righteousness and the sacrifices of the 

Jer. 7 : 22. For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them 
in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning 
burnt offerings or sacrifices ; but this thing commanded I them, saying : 
Obey my voice and I will be your God. 

Ps. 50 : 1-3. Will I eat the flesh of bulls, etc. And call upon me in 
the day of trouble ; I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me. 

Ps. 51 : 16. For thou desircst not sacrifice, etc. The sacrifices of 
God are a broken spirit : a broken and contrite heart, God, thou 
wilt not despise. 

8. Is the Romish mass, then, really a sacrifice ? 



The Papists indeed say yes to this ; maintain- 
ing that in the mass, i. e., in the celebration of 
the Lord's Supper, the body and the blood of 
Christ are offered to God, the Father, by the 
priest, for the sins of the living and the dead. 
But this opinion I reject as impious and blasphe- 
mous. (See Augsburg Confession, Art. xxiv.) 

9. Why? 

First, because Christ, according to Holy Scrip- 
ture, had to be offered, and was offered, only 
once, in his sufferings on the cross. Heb. 7 : 27 ; 
9 : 12 ; 10 : 12. He, therefore, cannot be inces- 
santly offered in the mass. {Augsburg Confession, 
Art. xxiv.) 

In the second place. Holy Scripture teaches, 
that we are justified before God through faith in 
Jesus Christ, namely, when we believe that our 
sins are forgiven for Christ's sake. If the Romish 
mass, then, in and of itself, merely as a work, 
blot out the sins of the living and the dead, jus- 
tifi4fe,tion would not come by faith, but by the 
work of the mass. Augsburg Confession, Art. xxiv.) 

Thirdly, a double use of the Holy Supper is 
expressed in the words of institution : 

(1.) An external use, which consists in eating 
and drinking. 

(2.) An internal use, namely, that it is done in 
remembrance of the Lord. But neither of these 
two uses can intimate a sacrificial institution, yea, 
the latter radically overthrows the entire sacrifice 
of the mass. For if the remembrance of a sacri- 


fice is celebrated here, the Holy Supper certainly 
cannot be the sacrifice itself. 

Fourthly and finally, the Romish mass, like a 
dragon's tail, has created much idolatry and in- 
numerable abominations, as : the doctrine of pur- 
gatory, the appearance of spirits, pilgrimages, fra- 
ternities, relics of saints, and also indulgences, 
which were sold for money on behalf of the living 
and the dead. 



1. What is offence ? 

Offence is a word or deed, by which some one 
becomes worse, either because he is confirmed in 
an error, or because he imitates a bad example, or 
also because he is filled with greater hatred against 
the Gospel. [Melanchthon in the Articles.) 

2. How many kinds of offences are there ? 

(1.) The Pharisaic or taken offence ; that is, when 
unbelievers are angry at the true doctrine of the 
Gospel, or at honest and necessary deeds ; if they 
will not suffer the true doctrine to be promul- 
gated, error to be rebuked, and idolatry to be 

(2.) The given offence. This is either false doc- 


trine or evil example, bringing injury to others, 
either because it confirms them in their hiwless- 
ness, or tempts them to imitation, or frightens 
them from the Gospel and gives them occasion to 
revile Christ and the Gospel, or because it is the 
seed of other sins. 

3. What rules must be observed in regard to offence ? 
Two in particular. 1. In reference to the given 

offence, that believers should avoid it with the 
greatest care and watchfulness, according to the 
admonition of Christ. Matt. 18 : 7. "Woe to that 
man by whom the offence cometh." 

4. What is the second rule ? 

This refers to the taken offence. They should 
not so avoid it as to cause themselves to omit 
whatever is pious, of good report, or necessary; 
on the contrary, they ought not to yield to hypo- 
crites and the enemies of the truth for a moment, 
but rather bravely and undauntedly stand fast in 
the liberty to which they have been called through 
Christ, as has been clearly demonstrated in the 
18th Article, " Concerning Christian Liberty." 

5. Can the given offence not be prevented ? 
It can indeed be prevented, if namely : 

(1.) The doctrine of the Gospel be purely, clearly 
and distinctly set forth, so that conflicting errors 
are thoroughly and correctly refuted on the ground 
of holy Scripture. 

(2.) If the customs introduced into the church, 
and all those which can be retained without sin, 
be not changed wantonly. 


(3.) If every one strive after purity of life and 
walk, but especially if the ministers of the Word 
endeavor to be blameless and an example unto 

(4.) If every untimely use of Christian liberty 
be avoided. 

(5.) When good discipline and propriety of con- 
duct is upheld by all in general, and by every one 
in particular. 



1. Why does God permit believers to be exercised by 
manifold afflictions ? 

Many reasons could be assigned for this, but 
the following are the principal ones : 

(1.) Because there is still sin remaining in be- 
lievers, and because gross desires of the flesh, 
warring against the spirit, still cleave to them. 
On this account God by the cross provokes them 
to repentance, faith, prayer, renewal of life, and 
other pious exercises of this kind. Isa. 28 : 19. 

(2.) Because God wishes believers even in this 
life to be conformed to the image of his Son. 
Eom. 8 : 29. 

(3.) Because God in this manner more clearly 
exhibits to believers his presence, love, and om- 


Isa. 37 : 20. " Now therefore, O Lord, our God, 
save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of 
the earth may know that thou art the Lord, even 
thou only." 

(4.) Because he wishes the pious to make testi- 
mony and confession of their faith, that they are 
not hypocrites, and that they truly believe, and 
do not spread a doctrine invented by themselves 
for their own advantage. 

Ps. 116 : 10. " I believed, therefore have I 
spoken. I was greatly afflicted." 

2. How must the cross be borne ? 

First, in true humility, which consists in a 
heartfelt and soul-distressing conviction of sin. 

Secondly, in true faith in Christ, so that we 
through him alone implore God for a lightening 
of the cross. Then, in true patience, which qui- 
etly resigns itself to the will of God. 

Finally, in firm comfort, with which we raise 
ourselves up under the cross. 

3. Whence is such comfort to be obtained ? 

From the words of God, according to the dec- 
laration of David. 

Ps. 119 : 92. " Unless thy law had been my de- 
light, I should then have perished in mine afflic- 

4. Does not 'philosophy also furnish a sure comfort ? 
It indeed furnishes comfort, but of a very weak 

character, which cannot stand in severe trials. 
Its comforts are ; 


(1.) Necessity, whence the well-known expres- 
sion : " What cannot be cured must be endured." 

(2.) The importance of virtue, that because of 
the pain we should do nothing wrong. 

(3.) A good conscience. 

(4.) The example of others. 

(5.) The hope of a happy termination. 

(6.) Immortal glory, and some other things 
similar to these. i^Blelanchthon.) 

5. Adduce grounds of comfort from Holy Scripture. 
Holy Scripture furnishes five special grounds 

of comfort. The first is the good-will of God; 
for it is not by chance ox. accident that we are 
troubled, because God orders it so. Matt. 10 : 29, 
30. " Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? 
and one of them shall not fall on the ground 
without your Father. But the very hairs of your 
head are all numbered." 

6. What is the second ? 

The good design of the cross. 
Rom. 8:28. "And we know that all things 
work together for good to them that love God." 

7. The third? 

The promise of the divine aid and presence in 
all such calamities. 

Ps. 91 : 15. "I will be with him in trouble; I 
will deliver him, and honor him." 

8. Name the fourth ? 

This is a good conscience, which is a great com- 
fort in misfortune. 


2 Cor. 1 : 12. " For our rejoicing is this, the 
testimony of our conscience." 

9. And the fifth? 

This is the firm confidence in the forgiveness of 
our sins in Christ, which causes us to be in grace 
with God, though we be tried by any calamity 

Rom. 8 : 33. Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? 
It is God that justifieth : Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ 
that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right 
hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. Who shall sepa- 
rate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or 
persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? Nay, in all 
these things we are more than conquerors, through him that loved us. 
For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor prin- 
cipalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor 
height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us 
from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord. 



1. Is it man's duty to pray^ or is this an arbitrary 
matter ? 

Prayer is absolutely necessary, on account of 
the divine command. For so we hear in the 
second commandment : " Thou shalt not take the 
name of the Lord, thy God, in vain." These 
words at the same time require us to praise the 
holy name of God, and prayerfully to call upon 
him in all trouble. For calling upon God is 


nothing else than pouring out our prayers to God. 
[Larger Catechism.) 

Ps. 50 : 15. Call upon me in the day of trouble. 
Matt. 7 : 7. Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye shall find ; 
knock, and it shall be opened unto you. 

Then, too, our own wants and the necessities 
of others must urge us to pray unto God. 

Matt. 26 : 41. Watch, and pray that ye enter not into temptation. 
1 Tim. 2:1.1 exhort, therefore, that, first of all supplications, 
prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men. 

2. What is prayer or the invocation of God ? 
Prayer is a petition to God, that he, for the 

sake of Christ, the Mediator, apprehended by true 
faith, may grant necessary benefits; which peti- 
tion must be presented not mei'ely with the mouth, 
but also with the heart. And with it, at the same 
time, thanksgiving must be rendered for the bene- 
fits received. 

3. What is the design and effect of 'prayer ? 

" This we are to know, that all our safeguard 
and protection rests in prayer alone. For we are 
far too weak, of our own strength, equally to con- 
tend with Satan, and his auxiliaries, who attack 
us." "Wherefore, we are stronger than the devil 
and his band, solely by the support of prayer. 
[Larger Catechism.) 

Ps. 145 : 18. The Lord is nigh unto all them that call upon him, to 
all that call upon him in truth. He will fulfil the desire of them that 
fear him : he also will hear their cry and will save them. 

Prov. 18 : 10. The name of the Lord is a strong tower, the righteous 
runneth into it and is safe. 

4. What is necessary to true player ? 



These three things in particular: 
(1.) That God be called upon. 

Matt. 4 : 10. Thou shalt worship the Lord, thy God, and him only 
shalt thou serve. 

Isa. 42 : 8. My glory will I not give to another. 

(2.) That God be called upon in the name of 
Jesus Christ, our Saviour. 

John 14 : 14. If ye shall ask anything m? my name, I will do it. 
John 16 : 23. Verily, verily, I say unto you. Whatsoever ye shall ask 
the Father in m.y name, he shall give it you. 

(3.) That our faith repose confidence in the 
promises, given us in the Word. 

5. Is it 'permitted^ then, to ask any gifts whatsoever 
of God ? 

This is indeed allowed, but not in one and the 
same manner. For we are to ask for spiritual 
gifts, such as the Holy Spirit, the forgiveness of 
sins, constancy in faith, patience, and the like, 
which belong to faith and salvation, without any 
condition, in reliance on the promise of God, and 
expect them without doubt, as can be seen from 
the 51st Psalm. But temporal gifts are to be 
asked for conditionally : namely, provided it be in 
accordance with the will of God. 

Matt. 8 : 2. Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 
Matt. 26 : 39. my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from 
me : nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt. 

6. What mast be connected with true prayer ? 

Ps. 50 : 15. Call upon me in the day of trouble, I will deliver thee 
and thou shalt glorify me. 

Col. 3:17. And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name 
of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. 


7. Do we not owe this honor of invocation to the 
saints in heaven ? 

We may indeed think of the saints, in order to 
imitate their faith, Heb. 13:7; also to render 
thanks unto God, that he has given such teachers 
to the church; and finally, in order that every one 
may imitate their virtues, according to his call- 
ing. James 5 : 10. But Holy Scripture nowhere 
teaches that we are to invoke them or ask any 
aid of them. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xxi. 
Afology, Art. ix.) 

8. How so ? 

Because there is but one Redeemer and Medi- 
ator between God and men, Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. 
2 : 5, who is the only Saviour, the only High 
Priest, propitiator and intercessor with God. Rom. 
3:25; 8:34. 

And he alone has promised that he will hear 
our prayer. Heb. 11 : 11. This, too, according to 
Scripture, is the highest worship, that one seek 
and call upon this very Jesus in all distresses and 

1 John 2:1. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ, the righteous. And he is the propitiation for our 
sins : and not for our sins only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 
{Augsburg Confession, Art. xxi.) 

Besides, since neither command, nor promise, 
nor example of the invocation of saints can be 
cited from Holy Scripture, it follows that no 
heart or conscience can rely upon it. {Apology, 
Art. ix.) 


Finally, prayer must proceed from faith. But 
Holy Scripture nowhere assures us that God sanc- 
tions the adoration of the saints, nor that the 
saints hear the prayers of individuals. 

9. Then you maintain that the saints do not hear the 
prayers of individuals ? 

Although we grant concerning the saints in 
heaven, that, as the living on earth pray for the 
whole church in general, so also do they in 
heaven, although there is no instance to be found 
in Holy Scripture that the dead pray, except the 
dream mentioned 2 Mace. 15 : 12 ff.^ yet Holy 
Scripture directly denies that they hear and un- 
derstand the sighs and petitions of those who pray 
in particular. 

Isa. 63 : 16. Though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel ac- 
knowledge us not : thou, Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, thy 
name is from everlasting. (Apology, Art. ix.) 

10. Can the saints communicate their merit to us? 

The Papists indeed speak not only of the ador- 
ation of the saints, but also apply the merits of 
the saints to others, and thus not only make in- 
tercessors of them, but also mediators and pro- 
pitiators. [Apology, Art. ix.) 

11. But do not the Papists say that they do not 
make the saints propitiatory mediators, but only inter- 
cessory mediators ? 

They indeed make this distinction ; but from' 
their writings it can be seen that they do make 
the saints propitiatory mediators; and their asser- 
tion that the saints pray for us, likewise has no 


foundation in Scripture. For by such doctrine 
they obscure the office of Christ and the confi- 
dence due his mercy, and transfer it to the saints. 
Tor they delude themselves, as if Christ were the 
more severe, and the saints the more gracious, 
place more confidence in the mercy of the saints 
than in the mercy of Christ, and fleeing from 
Christ, seek the help of the saints. They thus in 
reality make the saints propitiatory mediators. 
{Apology, Art. ix.) 



1. Inasmuch as the examination of the monastic 
vows includes the subject of cloisters; tell me of what 
use were the cloisters at one time ? 

During the time of Augustine the cloisters 
were free colleges, or schools of Holy Scripture, 
and other studies, useful to the church, and from 
these the pastors and bishops were taken. [Augs- 
burg Confession, Art. xxvii ; Smalcald Articles, Part 
ii. Art. iii.) 

2. Bat lohat are the monasteries and nunneries at 
the present dag ? 

The Pope nowadays fetters the liberty of mo- 
nastic life, with the bonds of vows, and makes 


real prisons of those colleges, pretending that 
grace and righteousness may be earned by this 
mode of life. Yea, he even proclaims that it is 
a state of perfection, which, being ordained of 
God, must be by far preferred to all other modes 
of life, most shamelessly asserting, that monastic 
vows are equal to baptism, yea, even better than 
it. [Smalcald Articles, Part ii, Art. xiv.) 

3. What are these 7nonastic vows ? 

Although there are three kinds of monastic 
vows, namely, chastity, poverty, and obedience, 
yet to the first, that is chastity or continence, 
they especially apply the name of vow. 

4. What, then, do the Pajnsts call vows ? 
Among the Papists this is and is called a vow, 

when the monks, after they have abjured mar- 
riage forever, obligate themselves to a life of ce- 
libacy, so that they, after this vow has once been 
made, can never exchange celibacy with married 
life on pain of everlasting punishment. 

5. What do you think of these monastic vows ? 
That they are impious and vain. For, in the 

first place, God's law commands, that those, who 
do not possess the gift of continence, shall con- 
tract marriage. 

1 Cor. 7 : 12. To avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, 
and let every woman have her own husband ? 

Then God's creation and the order of this cre- 
ation, constrains all those to marry, who do not 
possess the gift of continence. 

Gen. 2 : 18. It is not good that the man should be alone. 


Wherefore this higher and divine law must of 
right be preferred to the lower or human law, 
and those do not sin who obey the cQmmand and 
institution of God. For no vow can destroy God's 
command and institution. [Augsburg Confession^ 
Art. xxvii.) 

6. Then these vows can he changed and broken ? 
Yes ; " for the canons say that in every vow the 

higher law takes the precedence, how much less 
then ought they to bind and be valid contrary to 
the divine law ? If these vows could not have been 
changed the Popes would not have issued dispen- 
sation against them ; for no man has the right to 
rend asunder a duty which grows out of divine 
right." [Augsburg Confession, Art. xxvii.) 

7. 3Ieniion another reason confirming the abolition 
of such monastic vows. 

In every vow, if it is to be firm and unchange- 
able, the nature of the vow must be regarded, 
namely, that it take place in a possible matter 
and in a proper manner. But in monastic vows 
nothing of this kind is observed. Therefore, 
they are of nought. That nothing of this kind 
is observed in monastic vows appears from the 
following : 

(1.) That it is in no man's power to vow per- 
petual chastity. 

(2.) That but very few make this vow deliber- 
ately and of their own free will. For the youjig 
men and maidens are persuaded and sometimes 


even forced into this vow, before they have a 
judgment of their own. Hence, some canons 
and laws rescind those vows which are made 
under fifteen years; yea, another canon forbids 
the monastic vow to be made under eighteen 
years. {Augsburg Confession, Art. xxvii.) 

8. Perhaps you can assign a third reason ? 

All worship rendered by man, instituted and 
selected without the divine injunction and com- 
mandment, in order to obtain righteousness and 
the grace of God, is contrary to God and the 
Gospel, and opposed to the commandment of 
God. As Christ himself says. Matt. 15 : 9, " But 
in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines 
the commandments of men." St. Paul, too, every- 
where teaches that we are not to seek righteous- 
ness and piety from our own observances and 
services which have been invented by men, but 
that righteousness and piety before God comes of 
faith and confidence, in that we believe that God 
receives us into grace for the sake of Christ. But 
now it is manifest that the monks have taught 
and preached, that an invented spirituality, and 
especially the monastic vows, render satisfaction 
for sin, and obtain God's grace and righteousness. 
It, therefore, follows that such vows are wrong, 
and therefore vain services of God. They are, 
therefore, not binding. {Augsburg Confession, Avt. 

9. I'hen you maintain that no vow can be a divine 
service ? 


Under the Old Testament the mode of the vows 
had to be arranged according to certain laws, so 
that all Avere not permitted to vow what they 
pleased. And hence that could not be a divine 
service which was rendered by means of a vow. 
But in the ISTew Covenant, where the entire man- 
ner of the divine service is included in the Word 
of God, vows cannot and dare not be regarded as 
divine service. For what is not commanded by 
God, but is done by the will of man, cannot be a 
service of-God. Rom. 14 : 23 : " For whatsoever is 
not of faith is sin." {Apologt/, Art. xiii.) 

Besides, no instance can be found in the New 
Testament, of God's being pleased with vows, as 
an acceptable service. [Apology, Art. xiii.) 

10. But can vows not be made at the present day, 
if one only do not connect the idea of merit, of divine 
service, and of necessity with them ? 

Yes, if they are made, in order that sins may 
be more carefully avoided, or that the business 
of one's calling may be more faithfully transacted, 
or that other permitted objects, useful to church 
and state, may be attained; as if, for instance, 
some one vows to abstain from wine and play, 
because he sees that much injury arises to him 
and others from it, etc. 

11. Can monastic life he referred to the evangelical 
counsels ? 

This too is false, that monastic life, such as 
chastity, voluntary poverty, and obedience, is a 


fulfilment of the counsels given in the Gospel. 
For the Gospel has nowhere advised such distinc- 
tions of dress and food, or the giving up of one's 
own property. For these are purely human ordi- 
nances, of which St. Paul says : 

1 Cor. 8:8: " But meat commendeth us not to 
God, etc." Therefore they are not services, which 
make us pious before God, nor are they evangeli- 
cal perfection. [Apology, Art. xiii.) 

12. But what do you think of the vow of obedience, 
which Christ himself (llatt. 19 : 21) seents to place 
among the evangelical counsels f 

The words of Christ are as follows : " If thou 
wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast and 
give it to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure 
in heaven; and come and follow me." But by 
this he does not understand an obedience, which 
is assumed on human advice and will, but that 
which takes place according to every individual's 
calling. [Apology, Art. xiii.) 

13. How is this to be understood f 

It must be so understood, that as calls are un- 
like, so also this call, of which Christ there speaks, 
is not for all persons, but only for that person, 
with whom Christ is there treating; just as we 
may not imitate the call of David to be a king, 
or of Abraham to sacrifice his son. [Apology, Art. 

14. Hoiv so ? 

Because an accurate distinction must be drawn 
between calls and obedience. For calls pertain 


to individuals, just as occupations themselves are 
different according to times and persons: but the 
example of obedience is general and concerns all 
men. Hence perfection would have become the 
portion of that young man, to whom Christ here 
speaks, if he had believed and obeyed this call. 
Thus it is sufficient for our perfection, if every 
one of us obey his own call in true faith. 



1. What is the civil magistracy? 

It is a rank ordained of God, which is to up- 
hold, as to both tables, external discipline, and 
also maintain peace, having the power to punish 
with physical force. (Melanchihon.) 

2. What are the chief duties of the civil magistrates ? 
Four: First, to care for the commandments of 

both tables, so far as they concern external dis- 
cipline. Secondly, to make laws concerning civil 
and domestic matters, which correspond with di- 
vine and natural right. Thirdly, to carefully at- 
tend to the execution of the laws which are passed. 
The fourth, to punish sinners, according to the 
measure of their crimes, but favor and reward the 


3. Is it aUoivable to undertake a governmental or 
other civil office ? 

" Concerning political affairs and civil govern- 
ment it is taught, that all government in the 
world, and all ordained rule and laws, are good 
works, created and instituted by God; that Chris- 
tians may hold governmental, sovereign, and judi- 
cial office, without sin, may pronounce judgment 
and decide right according to the imperial and 
other laws, which are in force, may punish evil- 
doers with the sword, conduct just wars, engage 
in battle, buy and sell, take oaths which are re- 
quired, possess property, marry, etc." {Augsburg 
Confession, Art. xvi.) 

4. The Gospel, then, does not abolish civil constitu- 
tions ? 

No : for the Gospel treats of the kingdom of 
Christ, which is spiritual, and begets faith, piety, 
love, and patience in our hearts, and here on 
earth begins within us the kingdom of God and 
everlasting life. As long as this life lasts, it 
nevertheless permits us to make use of the laws, 
the order, and the classes of society, which exist 
in the world, according to every one's calling, 
just as it permits us to use medicine, to build and 
plant, to use air, water, etc. 

"And the Gospel does not introduce new laws 
for the government of the world, but commands 
and demands, that we be obedient to the laws and 
to the authorities under which we live, be they 


heathen or Christians, and that we show our love 
by such obedience." {Apology, Art. viii.) 

6. Prove from Holy Scripture that the use of civil 
authority is permitted f 

Civil authority was confirmed at its institution 
by the command of God. 

Deut. 16 : 18. Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy 
gates : they shall judge the people with just judgment. 

St. Paul, Rom. 13 : 1, 2, confirms the obedience 
which we owe to the government. 

Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. Whosoever, 
therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God, etc. 
(Smaller Catechism.) 

6. Is it allowable to sit in judgment ? 

It is clearly evident from the example of our 
Lord himself, that it is allowable to sit in judg- 
ment, John 18 : 23, and of the apostle Paul, who 
defends himself in judgment. Acts 23 : 5, and 
appeals to the Roman law. Acts 22 : 25, yea, even 
to the Emperor himself. Acts 25 : 11. 

7. Is it right to -punish sin with death ? 

The right to inflict capital punishment on the 
wicked is likewise apparent from the words of the 

Kom. 13:4. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid : for he 
beareth not the sword in vain : for he is the minister of God, an 
avenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 

8. Is it permitted to carry on war? 

Yes ; for God himself through Moses has pre- 
scribed the mode of conducting war. Deut. 20 : 1. 



Besides, here and there we have examples in 
Holy Scripture of warriors, who are known to have 
been accepted by God, as Abraham (Gen. 14), 
Moses, David, and others. And even John the 
Baptist confirms the lawfulness of war, by com- 
manding soldiers to be satisfied with their wages. 
Luke 3 : 13. 

9. But does Holy Scripture j^ermit civil traffic and 
commercial intercourse to be carried on f 

Holy Scripture allows such trafiic and inter- 
course, if it is conducted in a lawful manner. 

1 Tbess. 4' : 6. That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in 
any matter, because that the Lord is the avenger of all such. {Ajioiogy, 
Art. viii.) 

10. Maya Christian i^ossess property? 

The Gospel does not abolish the ownership of 
temporal possessions, and the Apostle commands 
those who are rich, not to divest themselves of 
them, but only forbids their reposing confidence 
in these treasures. 1 Tim. 6 : 17. Thus Solomon 
speaks. Proverbs 5:15: " Drink waters out of 
thine own cistern and running waters out of thine 
own well. Let thy fountains be dispersed abroad, 
and rivers of waters in the streets. Let them be 
only thine own and not strangers with thee." 
The same is implied in the seventh command- 
ment: "Thou shalt not steal." [Apology^ Art. 

11. May a Christian take a judicial oath? 

This is apparent from the divine prediction, 
that it shall be a characteristic and mark of the 


citizens of the kingdom of Clirist, that they will 
swear by the name of the true God. Isa. 65 : 15 ; 
Jeremiah 4 : 2 ; 12 : 19. Yes ; God himself com- 
mands : " Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and 
serve him, and shalt swear by his name." Deut. 
6 : 13. (See Larger Catechism.) 

12. Can you 'prove the same of marriage ? 

Yes ; for marriage is not only extolled in Holy 
Scripture as useful and praiseworthy, but even 
enjoined as necessary. 

Gen. 2 : 24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, 
and shall cleave unto his wife : and they shall be one flesh. 

Matt. 19 : 4, 5. And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not 
read, that he which made them at the beginning, made them male and 
female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, 
and shall cleave to his wife ; and they twain shall be one flesh. 

Heb. 13 : 4. Marriage is honorable in all and the bed undefiled. 
(Compare the entire 128th Psalm.) 

13. But is not the use of such civil things opposed 
to Christian perfection ? 

This is indeed taught by the Anabaptists, who 
directly forbid a Christian's using such civil mat- 
ters, alleging that their use conflicts with Chris- 
tian perfection. But this is a clear falsehood and 
fraud : " for Christian perfection does not consist 
in the contempt of civil authority, but in the 
motions of the heart, in great fear of God and in 
great faith. For Abraham, David, and Daniel 
occupied royal stations, possessed great riches, 
and nevertheless were more holy and perfect 
thani^any monk or Carthusian that has come upon 
earth." {Apology^ Art. viii.) 


14. Must the civil authorities he obeyed in all things ? 
Christians are under obligation to obey the 

government and its commands, in everything, 
which may be done without sin. For if the com- 
mand of the government cannot be obeyed with- 
out sin, God must be obeyed rather than men. 
Acts 4 : 9. {Augsburg Confession^ Art. xvi. Com- 
pare Larger Catechism.) 

15. If one must always be satisfied with the decision 
of the government, then private revenge may no longer 
take place ? 

Very true ; for private revenge is not prohib- 
ited by an advice, but by a command. 

Matt. 5 : 44. Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good 
to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, 
and persecute you. 

Rom. 12 : 17, 19. Recompense to no man evil for evil; avenge not 
yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath ; for it is written : Ven- 
geance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord. 

But public vengeance which the government 
executes by virtue of office, is not prohibited, but 
enjoined, and is a work of God. Rom. 13 : 12. 
Of this kind are : courts, sentences of death, wars, 
military service, etc. 



1. What is marriage ? 

Marriage is the legal and indissoluble union of 
one man and one woman, instituted by God him- 


self for association throughout life, and the propa- 
gation of the human race. 

2. Who is the author of marriage 9 
God himself. 

Gen. 2 : 18. And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man 
should be alone : I will make him an helpmeet for him. 

3. Why do you define marriage to be the union of 
one man and one woman ? 

In order to exclude both bigamy and polygamy : 
because he who in the beginning created them 
male and female, said : " For this cause shall a 
man leave father and mother, and cleave to his 
wife, and they twain shall be one jlesh." 

4. Why do you call marriage a legal union ? 

Because those persons who can unite in mar- 
riage are distinguished into different grades, so 
that they are not allowed to contract marriage 
in a prohibited grade, as can be seen, Leviticus 
18 : 20. 

5. Is it not lawful to marry? 

All those, who are unfit for unmarried life, are 
allowed to marry. For vows cannot abolish the 
institution and commandment of God. ITow the 
commandment of God is this : 

1 Cor. 7:2. To avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, 
and let every woman have her own husband. 

Besides, not only the commandment of God, 
but also the creation and arrangement of God, con- 
strains all those to marry, who have not been 
made exceptions to the rule by a special work of 
God, according to this word of God himself. 


Gen. 2 : 18. It is not good that the man should be alone ; I will 
make him an helpmeet for him. {Angshirg Confession, Art. xxvii.) 

6. But is not marriage in its very nature unclean ? 
Certainly not; for it is an ordinance of God. 

And although it often becomes unclean through 
that which is accidental to it, namely, through the 
UDcleanness of wicked men themselves, it is, never- 
theless, pure to believers, because it is sanctified 
by th# "Word of God. And Christ himself calls 
marriage a divine union, when he says: "What 
therefore God hath joined together, let not man 
put asunder." Matt. 19 : 6. And Paul says of 
marriage, of meats, and of like things : " For it 
is sanctified by the Word of God and prayer." 1 
Tim. 4 : 5. And 1 Cor. 7 : 14. " For the unbeliev- 
ing husband is sanctified by the wife." And Titus 
1 : 15. " Unto the pure all things are pure;" that 
is, to those who believe in Christ, and are right- 
eous by faith. Therefore, as virginity is unclean 
in unbelievers, marriage is pure in believers, be- 
cause of the Word of God and faith. 

7. According to this priests would also be allowed to 
marry ? 

Certainly ; for the word of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 
7 : 2, "To avoid fornication, let eveiy man have 
his own wife," applies to them as well as to others. 
In like manner, verse 9, " It is better to marry 
than to burn." And as Christ says : " All men 
cannot receive this saying" (Matt. 19 : 11) ; Christ, 
who well knows what pertains to man, shows, that 
few men are fit for celibacy. " For God created 


them male and female." Gen. 1 : 27. [Augsburg 
Confession, Art. xxiii.) 

8. Can you prove your assertion hy other reasons ? 

Yes ; for the Papal law concerning the celibacy 
of the priesthood conflicts with divine and natural 
right : with divine right, because Moses, Gen. 1 : 
28, teaches that man and woman were so created 
by God, in order that they might be fruitful, be- 
get children, love one another, etc. : and with 
natural right, because this ordinance or creation 
in human nature is a natural right and law. 
Wherefore jurists have correctly said that the 
cohabitation and belonging together of man and 
woman is a law of nature. And as no man can 
change a law of nature, marriage must be free to 
every one. For when the nature is not changed, 
that ordinance must remain, which God has im- 
planted in our nature, and it cannot be removed 
by human law. [Apology, Art. xi.) 

9. Have you another proof 9 

That which Paul mentions : " To avoid forni- 
cation, let every man have his own wife." 1 Cor. 
7:2. "This is a common injunction and com- 
mandment, and concerns all tliose who are not 
fit for celibacy, and thus obliges all to marry who 
do not possess the gift of continence." [Apology, 
Art. xi.) 

10. But cannot the priests procure this gift for 
themselves ? 

The Papists indeed say that one must pray to 


God and invoke him for continence, and must 
mortify the body with fasting and work. But 
they are not in earnest in the matter ; they sport 
and jest acccording to their good pleasure. If 
continence were possible to every one, there 
would be no need of a special divine gift. But 
the Lord Jesus tells us that it is a special, distin- 
guished gift of God, and that not every one can 
receive this saying. God only wishes the rest to 
use that common law of nature, which he has in- 
stituted, and does not wish us to despise his ordi- 
nances. Gerson shows that there were many good 
men, who endeavored to subdue the body, and yet 
were not able. [Ayology^ Art. xi.) 

11. Does not Christ praise those, who become eunuchs 
for the Mngdoni of heaven's sake ? 

He does indeed praise them, but adds directly 
afterward: "All men cannot receive this saying," 
Matt. 19 : 12; that is, not all have the gift of con- 
tinence. And he adds immediately after: "He 
that is able to receive it, let him receive it;" by 
which he distinctly indicates that true wedlock is 
more pleasing to him than impure continence, of 
which there is much among the priests under the 
papacy. {Apology, Art. xi.) 

12. Perhaps you have other reasons, with which 
you can subvert the Papal law concerning the celibacy 
of the p)riests f 

I still have the following: 

(1.) This law is superstitious, pretending that 

OF DEATH. ' 225 

celibacy earns righteousness and salvation, rather 
than marriage. [Apology^ Art, xi.) 

(2.) It is attended with danger to souls and 
with public offence, as it gives birth to countless 
vices and shameful lusts. {Apology, Art. xi.) 

(3.) It is perfectly hypocritical. For this law is 
given by the Papists, not on account of religion, 
but to secure dominion, for which religion must 
impiously serve as a pretext. [Apology, Art. xi.) 



1. What is the death of the body? 

Bodily death is the dissolution of the natural 
union existing between the soul and the body. 

(This article is taken from the writings of Drs. 
Heerbrand and Himnius.) 

2. What is the cause of death? 

The principal cause of death is sin. 

Gen. 2 : 17. For in the day that thou eatest thereof (of the tree of 
the knowledge of good and evil) thou shalt surely die. 

Eom. 6 : 23. For the wages of sin is death. 

Rom. 5 : 12. Wherefore as by one man sin entered into the world, 
and death by sin. 

3. Who are subject to death ? 

All men, naturally begotten, and tainted with 


Rom. 5 : 12. So death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. 
Heb. 9 : 27. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after 
this the judgment. 

4. Bui is no one exce'pted from this laio of death ? 
Yes ; in the first place, Enoch and Elijah, being 

translated to heaven alive, were excepted. Gen. 
5 : 24; 2 Kings 2 : 11. Secondly, those who shall 
still be alive, at the last day. For these shall not 
die, but carried to the Lord, through the midst of 
the flames of this burning world, they shall expe- 
rience something similar to death. 

1 Cor. 15 : 51. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed; 
in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump. 

5. What consolation can believers oppose to the ter- 
rors of death, lohich, of all evils, is the m.ost terrible ? 

The pious, who believe in Christ, know that 
death is not death to them, but on the contrary, 
a gate and entry to life. 

John 5 : 24. Verily, verily, he that heareth my word, and believeth 
on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into 
condemnation, but is passed from death unto life. 

6. Do the souls die at the same time with the body ? 
N'o; on the contrary they are immortal spirits, 

which, after they are gone forth from this mortal 
body, truly continue to live. 

Eccles. 12:7. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and 
the spirit shall return unto God who gave it. 

Matt. 10 : 28. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not 
able to kill the soul, but rather fear him which is able to destroy both 
soul and body in hell. 

Matt. 22 : 32. I am the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. 
God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. 

7. In what state are souls, after death has sepa- 
rated them from the body 9 

OF DEATH. 227 

The souls of the pious, who believe in Christ, 
are in the hands of God, and there await the glor- 
ious resurrection of their bodies, and the full en- 
joyment of everlasting salvation. 

Luke 16 : 22, 25. The soul of Lazarus is borne into Abraham's 
bosom and there comforted. 

But the souls of the wicked or unbelieving are 
in the place of torment, and there, amid terror 
and anxiety, await the ignominious resurrection 
of their bodies, and the perfect realization of ever- 
lasting damnation. 

Luke 16 : 22. The rich man died and went to hell, into torment and 

8. But why are the dead bodies committed to the 
earth and buried f 

Because this custom and practice seems to cor- 
respond closely with Holy Scripture. 

Gen. 3 : 19. Dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return. 
Eccles. 12 : 7. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was : 
and the spirit return unto God who gave it. 

Then, too, because the instances recorded in 
both Testaments confirm this usage. 

Gen. 23 : 19. Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field 
of Machpelah, before Mamre. 

Matt. 27 : 60. Joseph of Arimathea had caused a grave to be made 
for himself in his garden. 

9. May we mourn for the dead? 
Yes ; but not to excess. 

The examples of the saints also testify to this, 
e.^., that of Abraham, who weeps over the death of 
his wife Sarah ; that of Joseph and his brethren, 
who sorrow over the death of their father Jacob \ 


that of the Israelites, who lament the decease of 
Aaron and Moses i and that of the Lord himself, 
who weeps at the death of Lazarus. John 11 : 35. 
1 Thess. 4:3. " But I would not have you be 
ignorant, brethren, concerning those which are 
asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which 
have no hope." 



1. Will the ivorld come to an e7id? 

Ps. 102 : 25, 26. Of old thou hast laid the foundation of the earth: 
and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but 
thou shalt endure : yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment ; aa 
a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed, 

Isaiah 61:6. The heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the 
earth shall wax old like a garment. 

Luke 21 : 33. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall 
not pass away. Compare 2 Peter 3 : 10. (Augsburg Confession, Art. 
xvii. Apology, Art. viii.) 

2. When will the ivorld come to an end ? 
Neither man nor angel can impart the certain 

and sure knowledge of this time. For " of that 
day and that hour knoweth no man, no not the 
angels which are in heaven, neither the Son" 
(in so far as he is man) " but the Father." Mark 
13 : 32. 

Acts 1:7. It is not for you to know the times or the seasons which 
the Father hath put in his own power. 

But there can be no doubt, even though our 


knowledge in this particular is not entirely cer- 
tain, that the end of the world is no longer far dis- 
tant; because the signs, which, according to the 
words of the Lord and the Apostles, are to pre- 
cede the end of the world, are mostly fulfilled. 
Matt. 24 : 29, 38 ; Luke 17 : 27; 21 : 25 ; 2 Thess. 
2 : 3 ; 2 Tim. 3 : 2, 3. 

3. How will the world perish ? 

The world will be destroyed by fire, according 
to the testimony of the Apostle. 

2 Thess. 1 : 8. And Peter says in his second epistle, ch. 3:7: " But 
the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept 
in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment, and perdition 
of ungodly men ;'' and v. 10 : " But the day of the Lord will come asa 
thief in the night, in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great 
noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also, 
and the works that are therein shall be burned up ;'' and v. 12 : "The 
heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt 
with fervent heat." 

4. Will this conflagration of the world last for a 
long time ? 

'No ; but suddenly, in a moment, shall the whole 
world be burned up. 

Matt. 24 : 27. For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and 
shineth even unto the west, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be. 

1 Thess. 5 : 2. For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the 
Lord so cometh, as a thief in the night. 

Luke 21 : 35. For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on 
the face of the whole earth. 





1. Will all men arise from the dead ? 

Yes, all who have died ; but those, who still 
live at the day of judgment, will be changed. 

Job 19 : 25. For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall 
stand at the latter day upon the earth : and though after my skin, 
worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. 

Ezek. 37:12. Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, my people, I 
will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves. 

Dan. 12 : 2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake. 

John 5 : 28. For the hour is coming, in the which all that are in 
the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth. 

1 Cor. 15 : 51. Behold, I show you a mystery : We shall not all 
sleep, but we shall all be changed : in a moment, in the twinkling of 
an eye, at the last trump : for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead 
shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. (See Augsburg 
Confession, Art. xvii ; Apology, Art. viii.) 

2. Upon what ground can we rest our undouhiing 
confidence as to the resurrection of the dead ? 

This ground is Christ, who is become the first 
fruits of them that slept, 1 Cor. 15 : 20; who is 
the beginning, the first born from the dead, Col. 
1 : 18; Rev. 1:5; yea, who is the resurrection and 
the life itself. John 11 : 25. 

And hence the Apostle draws this conclusion, 
1 Cor. 15 : 16 : " For if the dead rise not, then is 
not Christ raised." 

3. Will the resurrection of the dead, and the change 
of the living take place at the same time and promis- 
cuously ? 


The end of the world will indeed come in the 
twinkling of an eye ; but the order mentioned by 
the Apostle Paul will be observed in connection 
with it, namely, that when the Lord appears unto 
judgment, the dead shall first come' forth from 
their graves; then, those which are alive and re- 
main, shall be caught up together with them in 
the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. 1 Thess. 
4 : 15-17. 

4. How will the bodies of the risen he constituted? 
The same Apostle tells us this, 1 Cor. 15 : 42^., 

when he says : "It is sown in corruption, it is 
raised in incorruption ; it is sown in dishonor, it 
is raised in glory ; it is sown in weakness, it is 
raised in power ; it is sown a natural body, it is 
raised a spiritual body." Hence the bodies of the 
risen will be : 1. Incorruptible ; 2. Glorified ; 3. 
Powerful; 4. Spiritual. 

5. Will the bodies of unbelievers also be thus consti- 
tuted ? 

The bodies of the unbelieving will be incor- 
ruptible, but deprived of all glory, power, and 
spiritual honor. Instead of this, they will be full 
of disgrace and dishonor, and will be an abomi- 
nation in the sight of God and the angels and all 
the elect. 

6. Men then arise under unequal conditions ? 

Yes ; for believers arise to life and glory, but 
unbelievers to damnation and disgrace. 

Dan. 12 : 2ff. Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and ever- 


lasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as the bright^ 
ness of the firmament, and as the stars forever and ever. 

John 5 : 28, 29. The hour is coming, in the which all that are in the 
graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have 
done good unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil 
unto the resurrection of damnation. 



1. Will there be a day of judgment? 

Yes; for our Lord Jesus Christ will come at 
the last clay to judge and rule all the dead, to give 
to believers everlasting life and everlasting joy, 
but to condemn wicked men and devils to hell 
and everlasting punishment. [Augsburg Confession, 
Art. xvii; Apology, Art. viii.) 

2. Prove this from Holy Scripture. 

Ps. 9:8. He shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall min- 
ister judgment to the people in uprightness. 

Isaiah 66 : 15. For behold the Lord will come with fire, and with 
his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his 
rebuke with flames of fire ; for by fire and by his sword will the Lord 
plead with all flesh. 

John 5 : 27. And hath given him authority to execute judgment 
also, because he is the Son of Man. 

Acts 17:31. He hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the 
world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath ordained. 

2 Thess. 1 : 6, 7. Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recom- 
pense tribulation to them that trouble you : and to you who are 
troubled, rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from 
heaven with his mighty angels. 


3. Who will have to appear at this judgment? 
All men, believers and unbelievers, as many of 

them as have ever lived, do now live, and ever 
shall live. 

4. What will he the order of jproceedings or form of 
this judgment f 

Inasmuch as Christ, the searcher of hearts, will 
be the judge, such a course of proceedings, as is 
observed in human courts, will not be necessary. 
This Judge will rather pronounce judgment on 
all the thoughts, words, and works of men, and his 
judgment, which he pronounces on every indi- 
vidual, will be quickly executed, without delay or 
hindrance, as this course is described by Christ 
himself. Matt. 25 : 32#. 

5. According to what rule will judgment he ren- 
dered ? 

The rule of this court will be this : " He that 
helieveih on him is not condemned; hut he that believeth 
not, is condemned already, because he hath not be- 
lieved in the name of the only begotten Son of 
God." John 3 : 18. Thus Christ himself speaks, 
John 12 : 48 : " He that rejecteth me, and receiv- 
eth not my words, hath one that judgeth him : the 
word that I have spoken the same shall judge him 
in the last day." 

In like manner Paul, Rom. 2 : 16. 

" In the day when God shall judge the secrets 
of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel." 

6. What will be the tenor of the final sentence ? 



Christ himself mentions this, Matt. 25 : 34 and 
41. For the believing and elect shall hear the 
words : 

" Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the 
kingdom prepared for you from the foundation 
of the world." 

But to the unbelieving it shall be said : 

" Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting 
fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." 

" The angels shall come forth and sever the 
wicked from among the just, and shall cast them 
into the furnace of fire : there shall be wailing 
and gnashing of teeth." Matt. 13 : 49, 50. 

7. But how loill Christ come to this judgment? 
The Saviour himself tells us this, assuring us 

that he shall come in the clouds in great power 
and glory, namely, in that glory which his human 
nature has received from its union with the di- 
vine, and by sitting at the right hand of God. 

Matt. 24 : 30 ; 25 : 31. Then will go forth that 
command, and the voice of the archangel, and the 
trumpet of God on high ; and the whole multi- 
tude of the angels with trumpets and a mighty 
voice. Matt. 24:31; 25:31; 1 Cor. 15:52; 1 
Thess. 4 : 16. 

8. This seem.s to conflict ivith 'that ivhich Zechariah 
(ch. 12 : 10) says^ namely, they shall look upon him 
ichom they have pierced. ♦ 

By this the prophet does not mean to say that 
the form of the flesh of Christ will again be the 
form of a servant, but that he, by a certain ar- 

OF HELL. 235 

rangement will then show the wicked the scars of 
his wounds, and the marks of the nails, and in 
this manner fill them with the most extreme terror. 

9. Will the unbelieving see the divinity of Christ ? 

No; "for the wicked will not behold the ma- 
jesty of the Lord," Isa. 26 : 10 ; but they will only 
see his human nature radiant with the splendor 
of divine glory. Of this Augustine, in his book 
on the Trinity, beautifully says : " When the pious 
and the wicked shall have seen him, holding judg- 
ment in the glorified form of the servant, then 
will the wicked be taken away, that he may not 
see the brilliancy of God, in which God is, and 
which those only who are of pure heart shall 
behold, because they shall become partakers of 
everlasting life." 


1. Is there a hell? 

Deut. 32 : 22. For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn 
unto the lowest hell. 

Matt. 5 : 22. Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of 
hell fire. 

2. Where is hell? 

Since Holy Scripture nowhere mentions this, 
we ought not impertinently to inquire as to the 


place, but, by true faith and piety, employ all dili- 
gence to escape the hellish torments. 

3. What iDill be the nature of these torments ? 
This neither our understanding can properly 

comprehend, nor our tongue fully express. For 
Holy Scripture, accommodating itself to our com- 
prehensiou, gives us a faint conception of the same 
in words and expressions taken from temporal 
punishments: and calls it shame and everlasting 
contempt, weeping and gnashing of teeth, thick 
darkness, a worm that never dies, a pool of fire, 
and by means of these and other similar charac- 
teristics, sets before our eyes these very great 
and exquisite torments. Isa. 66 : 24; Matt. 8 : 12; 
Rev. 19 : 20. 

4. Will these torments last forever? 
Yes; for so Holy Scripture tells us. 

Isa. 66 : 24. Their ■worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be 

Matt. 3 : 12. He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 

Matt. 25 : 41. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire. 

Rev. 9 : 6. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not 
£nd it ; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them. 

On this account the Anabaptists are condemned, 
because they teach that devils and lost men will 
not suffer everlasting pain and torment. (Augs- 
burg Confession, Art. xvii.) 

5. Will this fire not in the end destroy and entirely 
annihilate the bodies of the damned ? 

No ; for after the resurrection the wicked, as 
well as the pious, have incorruptible bodies. 
And as this is a great glory to believers, it is 

OF HELL. 237 

SO much t"he greater shame and contempt to the 
wicked, yea, it even increases their punishment, 
because they, although destined to everlasting 
torment and torture, will yet never he entirely 
annihilated. Add to this, the fact that this hellish 
fire will not be a natural fire, and therefore can- 
not be subject to natural annihilation, especially 
since the bodies of the damned will not be natural 

6. Will there not be degrees of torment or punish- 
ment in hell ? 

Yes ; according to the degree of the sins them- 
selves, so that the more wickedly a man has 
lived, the more severe the torments he will have 
to suffer. Christ affirms this himself, when he 
gives the assurance. Matt. 11 : 22, that it shall be 
more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of 
judgment, than for Chorazin and Bethsaida. 

Luke 12 : 47. And that servant, which knew his Lord's will, and 
prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten 
with many stripes. 

7. Are there different classes in hell, as the Papists 
would have us believe f 

The Papists divide hell as it were into four 
cells, of which the lowest is the abode of the 
damned ; above this is the abode of the unbap- 
tized infants, who fare neither well nor ill ; then 
comes purgatory, that is the locality of those who 
have still to do penance for certain sins ; the high- 
est class or cell finally is the abiding-place of the 
sainted Fathers, in which they were kept until the 


coming of Christ, and to destroy which Christ de- 
scended into hell. 

8. Do you believe that there is any truth in this f 

I consider the prating of the Papists concern- 
ing these different classes to be vain farces and 
childish fables, and for these reasons : 

(1.) Holy Scripture knows of only two states of 
the souls, which are separated from the body : the 
one, the state of everlasting life ; the other, of 
damnation or hell. Mark 16 : 16. " He that be- 
lieveth shall be saved, but he that believeth not, 
shall be damned." A third place, such as purga- 
tory, is not known to the Scriptures. 

(2.) There are also but two classes of men : the 
one, the pious and believing; the other, the wicked 
and unbelieving. To the former, the Lord Jesus 
does not promise a purgatory, but everlasting 
life ; to the latter, he likewise, in a definite, un- 
changeable manner, decrees no purgatory, but 
everlasting fire, or hell. 

John 5 : 24. Verily, verily, I say unto you. He that heareth my 
word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and 
shall not come into condemnation ; but is passed from death unto life. 

John 3 : 18. He that believeth not is condemned already. 

9. Does there not seem to be also a third class of 
men, namely, those who in this life have but a weak 

By no means ; for these also belong to the first 
class, namely, to the pious and believing. For 
even weak faith is true faith, and takes hold of 
the merits of Christ no less than the strong. For 


faitli does not justify; in so far as it is weighed 
according to its quality, that is, according to its 
strength or weakness, but solely in so far as it 
takes hold on Christ, the physician of the sick, 
Matt. 9 : 12, who breaketh not the bruised reed, 
and quencheth not the smoking flax, Isa. 42 : 3, 
whose strength is made perfect in weakness. 2 
Cor. 12 : 9. The thief on the cross furnishes us 
with an example of this. Luke 23 : 42. 

10. Did Christ truly and really descend into helly 
or the jjlace of the damned ? 

Yes ; in order to conquer Satan, to destroy the 
power of hell, to deprive the devil of all power 
and might over believers ; that is, according to the 
Apostle, to triumph over the powers of hell. Col. 
2 : 15. 



1. Is there an everlasting life? 
There is, according to the testimony of the Holy 
Scriptures : 

Dan. 12:2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlast- 
ing contempt. 

Matt. 26 :46. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment; 
but the righteous into life eternal. 

John 10 : 28. And I give unto them eternal life : and they shall 
never perish, neither shall any pluck them oat of my hand. 


2. What is life everlasting f 

As eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
have entered into the heart of man, the things 
which God hath prepared for them that love him 
(1 Cor. 2 : 9), no one can adequately express, in 
the language of mortals, the nature of everlasting 
life. It is enough for us to believe that everlast- 
ing life is inexpressible bliss, with which God will 
eternally bless and glorify the faithful, that they 
with all the angels, may eternally live in him, and 
triumphing over the miseries of this world, may 
love God without weariness, worship him with- 
out satiety, and behold him without end. Of this 
David speaks : 

Ps. 21 : 4. He asked life of thee, and thougavest it him, ev«n length 
of days for ever and ever. 

3. Do you then maintain, that the blessed will he- 
hold God as he is ? 

They will, in the highest degree; for this will 
be the principal part of our bliss, that we shall 
see God face to face, and that we shall not only 
perfectly recognize his essence, and his will, but 
that we shall obey with the greatest desire and 

1 Cor. 13 : 12. For now we see through a glass, darkly ; but then 
face to face : now I know in part, but then shall I know even as also I 
am known. 

1 John 3 : 2. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not 
yet appear what we shall be : but we know that when he shall appear, 
we shall be like him j for we shall see him as he is 

Ps. 16 : 11. Thou wilt show me the path of life ; in thy presence is 
fulness of joy ; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. 


4. Will men mutually recognize each other in eternal 

They will ; for as, in life eternal, that which is 
in part shall cease, and we shall see God face to 
face; so also shall we mutually recognize each 
other, and all be known to each and every one. 

6. Have you firm ground for this assertion ? 

Yes; for in that life, there will be a perfect 
restoration of the image of God, in which the first 
man was created, which among other things pos- 
sessed perfect wisdom and knowledge. As Adam, 
therefore, by virtue of this image, immediately 
recognized Eve, whom he had not previously seen : 
thus also shall we, by virtue of this image restored 
in us, recognize each and every one, even though 
we may not have seen or known them in this life. 
We see an example of this in the narrative of 
Christ's transfiguration, when Peter immediately 
recognized Moses and Elias, whom he had never 
before seen, although he had obtained only a 
small foretaste of everlasting life. Luke 9 : 32, 33. 

Finally, if this were not so, it would follow that 
the knowledge of this life is superior to that of 
the life to come ; which is absurd. 

6. Will there he certain degrees of happiness in the 
life to come ? 

We must make a distinction between life ever- 
lasting, as already described, and the different 
degrees of glory. As regards everlasting life, 
there will be no difference at all, but all believers 



will enjoy it equally. As to glory or the brilliancy 
of the bodies of the blessed, there will be differ- 
ent degrees. For "they that be wise, shall shine 
as the brightness of the firmament; and they that 
turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever 
and ever." 1 Cor. 15 : 41, 42. 

However, these grades of glory do not depend 
upon the merit or worth of their works, but upon 
the free gift and grace of God, who is wont to 
crown his own saints with his own gifts. 

7. Will not the joy of life everlasting be disturbed 
by the fact thai the glorified will see many of their most 
intimate friends tormented in hell? 

It will not; for the will of the blessed, will in 
all things concur with that of God. Such carnal 
affections, which are the sign of our weakness in 
this life, will entirely cease in the life to come, 
when our love will extend only to those, who are 
beloved of God, and whom he has made heirs of 
everlasting life. But in the damned they will 
supremely admire and eternally praise the exalted 
justice of God. 




Absolution, 138, 166. 

Actions, Human, mode of God's 
concurrence in, 57, 58. 

Adiaphora, 154-163 

Afflictions, design of, 201 ; how 
they should be borne, 202 ; 
sources of comfort in, 203 

Anabaptists, error of, 236 

Angels, creation of, 47 ; defini- 
tion of, 47 ; their attributes, 47 ; 
their original condition, 48. 

Angels, Good, their perfection, 
48; holiness, 48; wisdom, 48 ; 
power, 49 ; finiteness, 49 ; orders, 
49 ; office, 49. 

Angels, Fallen, see Devils. 

Antinomians, error of, 95. 

Apocrypha, 13, 15. 

Apology of Augsburg Confes- 
sion, - 17; on absolution ex- 
plained, 166 ; quotations from, 
54, 65, 73, 86, 109, 126, 127, 
134, 135, 138, 139, 141, 144, 
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 
158, 160, 164, 166, 167, 168, 
169, 170, 173, 174, 192, 195, 
196, 207, 208, 209, 213, 214, 
217, 218, 219, 223, 224, 226, 
228, 232. 

Apostles" Creed, 171 ; explana- 
tion of its article on creation, 45 ; 
on the Holy Catholic church, 149. 

Athanasian Creed, 17; quota- 
tions from, 19, 20, 24, 27, 28. 

Athanasius, quoted. 32. 

Augsburg Confession, 17; quo- 
tations from. 20, 43, 61, 73, 127, 
133, 139, 141, 142, 143, 146, 

150, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 
158, 159, 171, 17.3, 175, 181, 
193, 194, 198, 207, 209, 211, 
212, 216, 220, 222, 228,2.32. 
Augustine, quoted, 14, 235. 


Baptism, definition of, 170; its 
essential part, ib., necessity, ib., 
effects, 171; effic.Tcy, ib., sub- 
jects, 173 ; not to be repeated, 
176 ; repentance of those who 
fall after baptism, ib. 

Bechmann on Hutter's Compend,5. 

Bigamy condemned, 221. 

Body and Blood of Christ. 
Their presence in the Lord's 
Supper, 171, 181, 182, 184; oral 
reception of, 186, 188 ; spiritual 
reception of, 186, 187 ; reception 
by the unworthy, 189. 


Call, The, God's decree coDcern- 
ing, 112 ; its universality, 115. 

Call to the Ministry, 143. 

Canonical Scriptures, 13, 14. 

Care, God's, of his Creatures, 

Celibacy Sacerdotal, con- 
demned, 219, 223. 

Ceremonies, uniformity of not 
necessary to the unity of the 
Church, 149. 

Chastity, monastic voio of, 211. 

( 243 ) 



Chemnitz, quotations from, 13, 

21, 22. 
Christ, description of, 24 ; mean- 
ing of the name, 25 ; his two 
natures, 25 ; his divine nature 
proved, 26 ; his human nature, 
26 ; ceremonial types of, 82 ; 
his conception, 27 ; birth, 27 ; 
state of humiliation, 42 ; of ex- 
altation, 42 ; his offices, 43 ; 
works of, 90, 101 ; sufferings, 
101 ; merits, 106 ; descentto hell, 
239 j ascension, 42 ; sitting at 
the right hand of God, 42 j re- 
turn to judgment, 232, 234; 
body and blood present in the 
Holy Supper, 171-189. 

Christian II of Saxony, 4. 

Chrysostom, quoted, 13, 14. 

Church, The, definition of, 144, 
145, 152; its divisions, 146, 
147; its unity, 148; militant, 
147 ; triumphant. 147 ; visible, 
147, 152; invisible. 147; uni- 
versal, 148; particular, 148; 
its holiness, 149 ; peccability. 
150; duration, 151; character- 
istics, 152; discipline, 158. 

Civil Government and the Gos- 
pel, 216. 

Cloisters, their use and abuse, 

Comfort, in afflictions, 203; in 
death, 226. 

Communicants, the worthy, 190 ; 
the unworthy, 189. 

CommunicatioIdiomatum, nature 
of, 31 ; reality of, 32 ; Genera id- 
iomaticHVi, inajesiaiicum, apo- 
telesmoticii'ni, 33-39. 

Communion of Natures, 30. 

Communion, Holy, see Lord's Svp- 

Concurrence, mode of God's, in 
human actions, 57 ; mode of 
man's in conversion, 80. 

Confession, definition of, 139 ; 
necessity of, 138 ; Romish doc- 
trine concerning, 137. 

Confessions of Faith, see Sym- 
bols and Symbolical Boohs. 

Confirmation, not a sacrament, 

Confirmation, Final, God's de- 
cree concerning, 113. 

CoNSUBSTANTiATioN, rejected, 184. 

Continence, gift of, 224. 

Contrition, definition of, 134; 
source of, 135 ; destitute of 
merit, 135 ; a part of repent- 
ance, 134; Romish doctrine 
concerning, 136. 

Controversies, Church, Scrip- 
ture the sole judge of, 16. 

Convents, see Cloisters. 

Conversion, definition of, 133 ; 
God's decree concerning, 112 ; 
man's inability to prepare him- 
self for it, 74 ; human agency 
in, 80; human capacity for, 77; 
wrought through means, 80 ; 
divine mode of, 80 ; causes of, 
81 ; its relation to repentance, 

Covenant, The New, 83. 

Creation, meaning of, 45 ; a work 
ofthe Trinity, 45; of the Father, 
46; Son, 26; Holy Ghost, 24 
material of, 46 ; design of, 46 
order of, 46 ; of angels, 47 
argument concerning original 
sin drawn from, 67. 
Creeds, The (Ecumenical, 17. 


Dead, The, burial of, 227 ; grief 
for, 227. 

Death, cause of, 225 ; subjects of, 

Decree, God's, concerning re- 
demption, 112; the call, 112; 
conversion, 112; justification, 
113; santification, 113; preser- 
vation, 113; final confirmation, 
113 ; glorification, 113. 

Devil, The, cause of his sin, 51, 
58, 60. 

Devils, their original condition, 
60 ; present state, 61 ; works, 
52 ; knowledge, 52 ; power, 53. 

Disease, original sin a, 61. 

Doctrine, PuRiTr of, a mark of 
the true Church, 152. 

DoNATiSTS, errors of, 142. 




EATiNCf OF Christ, spiritual, 186 ; 
sacramental, 187. 

Elect, The, their liability to fall, 
122 ; their number fixed, 122. 

Election, see Predestination. 

End of the World, its time, 228 ; 
its manner, 229. 

Essence, meaning of, 22. 

Eternal Life, definition of, 240 ; 
grades of, 241; glory in, 241; 
absence of pain and sorrow, 242. 

Eutvchianism, 31. 

Exaltation, state of, 42. 

Extreme Unction, not a sacra- 
ment, 167. 


Paith, definition of, 104 ; object 
of, 106 ; means by which it is 
enkindled, 80 ; a cause of justi- 
fication, 10.3; the ground of 
predestination, 120 ; want of 
faith not to be ascribed to God, 
121 ; faith, a part of repentance, 
134 ; effects of, 136 ; the source 
of the efficacy of the sacra- 
ments, 165 ; efficacy of Baptism 
depended on it, 175 ; faith of 
baptized infants, 175. 

Pall, The, consequences of, 55. 

Fathers. The, authority of, 16. 

Placcians, errors of, 66. 

PoREKNOWLEDGE, difference be- 
tween it and Predestination, 110. 

PoRM OF Concord, 17 ; quotations 
from, 1^, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27, 28, 
29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34-36, 37, 
38-40, 41, 42,43, 55, 62, 6.3-65, 
66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 74-75, 76, 77, 
78, 80, 81, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 
89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 
100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 
108, 109. 112, 113, 114, 115, 
116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 
129, 130, 131, 132, 139, 149, 
159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 178, 
179, IfeO, 181, 182, 183, 184, 
185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 
191, 192, 193. 

Freymuller's conversion from 
Romanism, 5. 


Gerhard, Dr. John, 3. 

Glassius, Dr. Solomon, 5. 

God, definition of, 19 ; attributes 
of, 19 ; the Father, 21 ; the 
Son, 22; the Holy Ghost, 23; 
not the author of sin, 5i, 58, 
60, 121; a judge, 59. 

Godhead, The, persons of, 20. 

Gospel, definition of, 91 ; subject- 
matter of, 93 ; promises of, 93 ; 
object of, 94 ; effects of, 95. 

Government, The Divine, 57. 

Grace of God, definition of, 100; 
man's inability to prepare him- 
self for, 74; when withheld, 59. 


Hand, Right, of God, 42. 
Hardening, God's agency in, 59 ; 

the Devil's, 60 ; man's, 60. 
Heart, unregenerate, character 

of, 76. 
Heaven, see Eternal Life. 
Heavenly Bodies, motion of, 57. 
Heavenly Recognition, 240. 
Heerbrand, 225. 
Hell, 235. 
Heunischius, 5. 
Holiness, Original, man's loss 

of, 55. 
Hospinian's Concordia Discors, 

HuLSEMANN, ou Hutter's Com- 

pend, 5. 
Humiliation, state of, 41. 
HuNNius's Epitome Credendo- 

RDM, 6. 

HuNNius, quotations from, 24, 

45, 47, 56, 147, 225. 
HuTTER, Dr. L,, sketch of, 3. 
Hdtterus Redivivus, 4. 


Image, The Divine, in angels, 47 




in man, 54 ; definition of, 54 ; 
proof of, 54 ; its loss, 54 ; its 
restoration, 55 j errors concern- 
ing it, 55. 

Immersion, significance of, 177. 

Immortality of the Soul, 226. 

Impotency, Hdman, in spiritual 
things, 55. See also Conver- 
sion, Grace of God. 

Incarnation, argument on origi- 
nal sin drawn from, 67. 

Indulgences. 199. 

Infant Baptism, 173. 

Infants, Baptized, regeneration 
of, 174 ; faith of, 175. 

James 2 : 22 explained, 109. 

Jehovah, The Name, 23, 26. 

Jerome, quoted, 13. 

Jesus, meaning of, 24. 

Judgment, The FinaL; its cer- 
tainty, 232 ; objects, 233 ; pro- 
cess, 233 ; rule, 233, sentence, 
234; Christ, the judge, 233. 

Justice, Civil, its exercise ap- 
proved by God, 217. 

Justification, definition of, 99 
parts of, 99 ; causes of, 100 
God's decree concerning, 113 
relation of good works to Justi- 
fication, 107-109. 

Justify, meaning of, 99. 


Kingdom of Christ, 44, 


Larger Catechism, 17; quoted, 
43, 44, 145, 171, 173, 174, 176, 
178, 182, 194, 205, 219, 220. 

Law, The, difference between it 
and the Gospel, 88, 92-94. 

Law, The Ceremonial, defini- 
tion of, 82; abrogation of, 82. 

Law, The Judicial, definition of, 
83 ; abrogation of, 83. 

Law. The Moral, definition of, 
84; its commands and require- 
ments, 85, 93 ; promises, 93 ; 
objects, 86, 93; effects, 94; 

punishments, 84 ; naturally 
known, 84; revealed, 84; its 
uses, 85; relation to the re- 
generator, 85 ; difference be- 
tween its works and those of 
the Spirit, 89. 

Liberty, Christian, definition 
of, 153; grades of. 153; its re- 
lation to works, 157. 

Lord's Supper, definition of, 177; 
sources of the doctrine concern- 
ing, 178; the words of institu- 
tion to be received literally, 
178; Calvinistic error concern- 
ing, 179; the words of institu- 
tion to be interpreted literally, 
179 : true presence of Christ's 
body and blood, 181 ; mode of 
this presence, 184; the commu- 
nion of the unworthy, 189; 
communion snb una specie, 192; 
design of this sacrament, 193 ; 
frequency of its use, 194. 

Lust, .«in, 65. 

Luther, quotations from, 42, 52, 


Magistrate, Civil, duties of, 
215; divine sanction of the 
oflttce, 217 ; obedience to, 217. 

Man, states of, 72 ; image of God 
in, 54. 

Manicheans, errors of, 65-66. 

Marriage, definition of, 220 ; 
legality of, 221 ; author of, 221 ; 
purity of, 222 ; permitted to the 
ministry, 222 ; not a sacrament, 

Mary, The Virgin, 27. 

Mass, Romish, not a sacrifice, 198. 

Means, used by the Holy Ghost, 
80, 89, 140. 

Mediator, Christ the only. 287. 

Melanchthon, his Lori Commu- 
nes, quotations from, 19, 22, 45, 
56, 00, 61, 69, 70. 72, 83, 84, 
96, i:U, 153, 199, 203. 

Minister, definition of, 143 ; mar- 
riage of ministers, 222. 

Ministry, The ; its design, 140 . 
institution, 141; efficacy as de- 



pendent upon the character of its 
agents, 142; to whom commit- 
ted, 142. 
Monasteries, see Cloisters. 


Monastic Vows, enumeration of, 
210 ; definition of, ib., condem- 
nation of, ib. , abrogation of , 2 1 1 . 

Mortification of the flesh, 157. 


Nature, Human, not sin, 66-68 ; 
condemned on account of sin, 66. 

Nature, Order of, preserved by 
Providence, 57. 

Natures in Christ, the divine, 
26 ; the human, 26 ; union of 
natures, see Union ; commu- 
nion of, see Conitnunion. 

Nestorians, condemned, 28. 

Novatians, error of, 132. 


Oaths, Judicial, 218. 
Obedience, monastic vow of, 214 ; 

to magistrates, 220. 
Offences, 199. 
Omnipotence of the Holy Ghost, 

23 ; of Christ's human nature, 

Omnipresence of the Holy Ghost, 

24 ; of Christ's human nature, 

Omniscience of the Holy Ghost, 
23 ; of Christ's human nature, 

Ordination, not a sacrament, 167. 

Pelagians, errors of, 63-65. 
Perfection of Scripture, 15. 
Perseverance of the elect, 121. 
Person, meaning of, 22 j of Christ, 

25, sq. 
Pharaoh, hardening of, 59. 
Pity, God's, universal, 114. 
Polygamy, condemned, 221. 

Poverty, monastic vow of, 213. 

Power of good angels, 49 ; of 
devils, 53. 

Predestination, its relation to 
Providence, 57 ; to foreknowl- 
edge, 110 ; source of true doc- 
trine concerning, 110, 111 ; defi- 
nition of, 111 ; grades of, 112 ; 
not universal, 117; cause of its 
restriction, 117 ; made in Christ, 
119; foreseen faith its ground, 

Preservation, a work of God's 
Providence, 56 ; a work of the 
Holy Ghost, 24 ; of believers, 
God's decree concerning, 113. 

Priesthood of Christ, 43. 

Prayer, necessity of, 204 ; defini- 
tion of, 205 ; design and efi'ects 
of, ib., requisites of, 206; ob- 
jects of, ib. 

Property, possession of, not 
wrong, 213. 

Providence, definition of, 56 ; 
general, special, and particu- 
lar, 57. 

Punishment, Capital, not wrong, 

Purgatory, 199. 

Quickening, a work of Christ, 32 ; 
of Christ's human nature, 40 ; 
of the Holy Ghost, 24. 


Redemption, God's decree con- 
cerning, 112; inability of angels 
to efi'ect, 48 ; de^-ils without the 
hope of, 54 ; universality of, 
115 ; argument on original sin 
drawn from, 67. 

Regeneration, necessary to eter- 
nal life, 61 ; a work of the Holy 
Ghost alone, 55, 74, sq. ; wrought 
through means, 80 ; not com- 
plete in this life, 55 ; perfected 
in the life to come, 55 ; of bap- 
tized infants, 174. 



Renewal, necessary to eternal 
life, 61 ; a work of the Holy 
Ghost alone, 55, 74, sg.; wrought 
through means, 80 ; not com- 
plete in this life, 65 ; perfected 
in the life to come, 55; not a 
ground of justification, 107, 108. 

Repentance, definition of, 97, 
133 ; parts of, 134 ; its relation 
to conversion, 97 ; relation of 
the Gospel to, 98. 

Resdrrection, The, subjects of, 
230 ; mode of, 231 ; properties 
of risen bodies, 231 j arguments 
on original sin derived from, 68. 

Righteousness, Original, loss 
of, 55. 

Right Hand of God, 42. 

Rites, Church, nature of, 154; 
Christian liberty in using them, 
154; uniformity of rites not 
essential to the unity of the 
Church, 149. 

Romish Errors concerning the 
Church, 150 ; confession, 137 ; 
contrition, 136 ; Lord's Sup- 
per, 192, 193; mass, 198; mor- 
tification, 157 ; original sin, 65 
prayer, 208; purgatory, 199 
repentance, 136 ; sacrifices, 198 
sacraments, eflScacy of, 169 ; sat 
isfaction, 139 ; vows, 209. 


Sacraments, definition of, 164 ; 
author of, 163 ; requisites of, 
165 ; essence of, 165 ; design of, 
164 ; by whom administered, 
143 ; right use of, a mark of the 
true Church, 152 ; fruits of, 
164; no grace conferred, ex 
opere operato, 168. 

Sacraments of the Old Cove- 
nant. Their nature, 164 ; their 
elements, 165. 

Sacraments of the New Cove- 
nant. Their nature, 164 ; their 
elements, 165. 

Sacramental Union, 184. 

Sacrifice, definition of, 195 ; dis- 

tinction between it and a sacra- 
ment, 195 : species of, 195 ; pro- 
pitiatory, 195 ; eucharistic, 195 ; 
the Romish mass not a sacrifice, 

Samosata, Paul of, his error, 28. 

Sanctification, God's decree 
concerning, 113 ; a work of the 
Holy Ghost, 24; wrought 
through means, 80 ; imperfect, 
72 ; not a ground of justifica- 
tion, 108 ; argument on Original 
Sin drawn from, 68 ; see also 

Scholastic, doctrine concerning 
angels, 49 ; the image of God, 

Scriptures, The Holy, authority 
of, 13, 14; divisions of, 13 ; per- 
spicuity of, 15 ; perfection of, 
15 ; the sole judge of church 
controversies, 16 ; their rela- 
tion to the symbols, 18. 

Sin, definition of, 60 ; divisions of, 
61 ; cause of, 51, 58, 60. 

Sin, Actual, 69. 

Sin Against Conscience, 70. 

Sin Against the Son of Man, 70. 

Sin Against the Holy Ghost, 70. 

Sin, Irremissible, 71. 

Sin, Original, definition of, 61 ; 
consequence of, 63 ; hereditary, 
63 ; universal, 63 ; not a sub- 
stance, 69 ; but an accident, 
69 ; contrary to the divine im- 
age, 54. 

Sin, Venial, 69. 

Sitting at the Right Hand of 
God, 42. 

Smalcald Articles. 17; quota- 
tions from, 20, 21, 27, 136, 137, 
138, 149, 209, 210. 

Smaller Catechism, 17; quota- 
tions from, 74, 139, 170, 172, 
177, 178, 194. 

Soul, immortality of, 226 ; state 
after the death of the body, 227. 

States, the four, of man, 12. 

Strength, Spiritual, man's want 
of since the fall, 77. 

Symbolical Books of our 
Church, their relation to the 
other symbols, 17 ; their rela- 



tion to Scripture, 18 ; their de- 
sign and legitimate use, 18. 
Stmbols, the three oecumenical, 


Traditions, Church, definition 
of, 154 ; examples of, 154 ; pres- 
ervation of, 154 ; dangers aris- 
ing from erroneous doctrines 
concerning, 154. 

Transubstantiation, rejected, 
184, 193. 

Trinity, the Holy, 20. 


Unbelief, God not the cause of, 

Union op two Natures in Christ, 
its character, 28 ; its conse- 
quences, 29. 

Unregenerate, The, their rela- 
tion to the law, 89. 


War, sometimes right, 217. 
Werner's Polemic Theology, 5. 

Will, The, its freedom before the 
Fall, 72 ; its freedom since the 
Fall, 73 ; its passivity in con- 
version, 80. 

Word, The, an instrument of con- 
version, 80, 140 ; who dare 
teach it, 142 ; efficacy of Bap- 
tism dependent on it, 170, 173 ; 
efficacy of the Lord s Supper de- 
pendent on it, 191. 

Works, Good, definition of, 124 ; 
grounds of their excellency, 
124 ; motives for their perform- 
ance, 125 ; their relation to 
justification, 107; to repent- 
ance, 134; to faith, 108; their 
rewards, 126 ; necessity, 108 ; 
spontaneity, 129 ; erroneous 
expressions in regard to them, 
129 ; contrasted with works of 
the law, 89. 

Works op the Unrebeneratb, 

Worship ascribed to the Holy 
Ghost, 24 ; ascribed to the Son, 
26 ; ascribed to Christ as a man, 
40 ; of angels, unlawful, 50 ; an- 
gelic, of God, 49. 


Zwingle's alloeosis, 34, sq. 

on Theological Semmary-Speer Library 

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